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The LOFAR Two-meter Sky Survey: Deep Fields Data Release 1 - II. The ELAIS-N1 LOFAR deep field

Abstract : The LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) will cover the full northern sky and, additionally, aims to observe the LoTSS deep fields to a noise level of ≲10 μJy beam−1 over several tens of square degrees in areas that have the most extensive ancillary data. This paper presents the ELAIS-N1 deep field, the deepest of the LoTSS deep fields to date. With an effective observing time of 163.7 h, it reaches a root mean square noise level of ≲20 μJy beam−1 in the central region (and below 30 μJy beam−1 over 10 square degrees). The resolution is ~6 arcsecs and 84 862 radio sources were detected in the full area (68 square degrees) with 74 127 sources in the highest quality area at less than 3 degrees from the pointing centre. The observation reaches a sky density of more than 5000 sources per square degree in the central region (~5 square degrees). We present the calibration procedure, which addresses the special configuration of some observations and the extended bandwidth covered (115–177 MHz; central frequency 146.2 MHz) compared to standard LoTSS. We also describe the methods used to calibrate the flux density scale using cross-matching with sources detected by other radio surveys in the literature. We find the flux density uncertainty related to the flux density scale to be ~6.5 per cent. By studying the variations of the flux density measurements between different epochs, we show that relative flux density calibration is reliable out to about a 3 degree radius, but that additional flux density uncertainty is present for all sources at about the 3 per cent level; this is likely to be associated with residual calibration errors, and is shown to be more significant in datasets with poorer ionosphere conditions. We also provide intra-band spectral indices, which can be useful to detect sources with unusual spectral properties. The final uncertainty in the flux densities is estimated to be ~10 per cent for ELAIS-N1.Key words: surveys / catalogs / radio continuum: general / radio continuum: galaxies★ Catalogs and images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via★★ The data associated with this article are released at:
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Submitted on : Tuesday, August 16, 2022 - 9:08:28 AM
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J. Sabater, P.N. Best, C. Tasse, M.J. Hardcastle, T.W. Shimwell, et al.. The LOFAR Two-meter Sky Survey: Deep Fields Data Release 1 - II. The ELAIS-N1 LOFAR deep field. Astron.Astrophys., 2021, 648, pp.A2. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202038828⟩. ⟨hal-03070704⟩



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