Évolution de la porosité des grains : une solution aux problèmes de formation planétaire ?

Abstract : In protoplanetary discs, micron-sized grains should grow up to planetesimal sizes in order to ultimately form planets. However, dynamical studies show that once they reach a critical size, they drift rapidly into the accreting star. This is known as the radial-drift barrier. Moreover, laboratory experiments have shown that grains can fragment or bounce, stopping the growth towards planetesimal sizes.In order to overcome those barriers, several methods have been proposed such as particles traps (e.g. vortices or planet gaps) which all involve large-scale dynamics.In this work, we choose to investigate the intrinsic properties of the grains during their growth, in particular their porosity.We thus consider the growth of grains with variable porosity as a function of their mass in several regimes of compression/expansion (Kataoka et al. 2013, Okuzumiet al. 2012) and implement it in our 3D SPH two-fluid code (Barrière-Fouchetet al. 2005).We find that growth is accelerated for porous grains that can reach kilometersizes. On the other hand, drift is slightly slowed down for porous grains that can grow up to larger sizes before drifting towards the star. As a result, grains in the outer regions of the disc reach larger sizes than when porosity is neglected. Those two mechanisms can help grains overcome the radial-drift barrier and form planetesimals.The Stokes drag regime appears to play a substantial part in maintaining grains in the disc.Considering a constant fragmentation threshold, we also find out that growth is delayed because of fragmentation but reaching large sizes and thus overcoming problems due to fragmentation and radial drift is still possible. However, very fluffy grains are fragile and can be easily disrupted leading to a massive accretion of dust into the star. Moreover, we show that the effects due to dust bouncing can be neglected compared to fragmentation.Finally, we investigate the influence of the size of monomers and -parameter on the evolution of porosity and then dust in the disc.Dust growth is accelerated by porosity and thus promotes grains decoupling. Very fluffy grains are more affected by fragmentation. However, dust collective effects and porosity can help grains to overcome planet formation barriers. Besides,the bouncing barrier can be neglected in the case of porous dust compared to other barriers. Finally, the intensity of turbulence can alter the growth and so the outcome of dust. The size of monomers modifies the grain filling factor without impacting dust decoupling in the inner parts of the disc
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Anthony Garcia. Évolution de la porosité des grains : une solution aux problèmes de formation planétaire ?. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1142⟩. ⟨tel-01977317⟩

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