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Journal Articles Icarus Year : 2023

Three-dimensional modelling of Venus photochemistry and clouds

Abstract

We present here three-dimensional simulations of the Venus photochemistry and clouds from the ground to the bottom of the thermosphere. For that purpose, we have implemented a state-of-the-art photochemical and equilibrium cloud model in the Venus Planetary Climate Model (Venus PCM)IPSL Venus Global Climate Model (VGCM). The interactive coupling between dynamics, radiation, chemistry and clouds allows a comprehensive description of the CO, CO, sulfur, chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen species, with tracking of the condensed phase. Regarding the clouds, the Venus PCM calculates the composition, number density, and sedimentation rates of the binary HSO-HO liquid aerosols, based on observed altitude-dependent size distributions. The article describes in detail the new components implemented in the Venus PCM. It then presents an overview of the results concerning clouds and atmospheric chemistry, which are compared with a wide range of observations. The modeled cloud characteristics and vertical profiles of minor species are found to be in broad agreement with most of the measurements available between 30 and 100 km. In particular, the Venus PCM reproduces the steep decrease of HO and SO mixing ratio inside the cloud layer, as well as the observed vertical distribution of species well identified above the clouds, such as CO and O3. The model also agrees with the ground-based measurements of HCl, but not with the conflicting HCl vertical profiles derived from Venus Express. On the quasi-horizontal plane, latitudinal contrasts in the modeled trace species mostly result from the Hadley-type mean meridional circulation. Large-scale longitudinal variations are essentially created by the diurnal thermal tide above the clouds, and by photolysis above 80 km.
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Dates and versions

insu-03960856 , version 1 (28-01-2023)

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Aurélien Stolzenbach, Franck Lefèvre, Sébastien Lebonnois, Anni Määttänen. Three-dimensional modelling of Venus photochemistry and clouds. Icarus, 2023, 395 (May), pp.115447. ⟨10.1016/j.icarus.2023.115447⟩. ⟨insu-03960856⟩
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