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Confirmation of the outflow in L1451-mm: SiO line and CH3OH maser detections

Abstract : Context. The observational counterparts of theoretically predicted first hydrostatic cores (FHSC) have been searched for in the interstellar medium for nearly two decades now. Distinguishing them from other types of more evolved but still embedded objects remains a challenge because these objects have a short lifetime, are small, and embedded in a dense cocoon. One possible lead to finding them is the characterization of the outflows that are launched by these objects, which are assumed to have a low velocity and be small extent.
Aims: We observed the L1451-mm FHSC candidate with the NOEMA interferometer (and complementary IRAM 30m data) in order to study the emission of several molecules.
Methods: Molecular lines were reduced and analyzed with the GILDAS package network, the CASSIS software, and some python packages. A nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the CH3OH detected lines was performed to retrieve the physical conditions of the emitting region around the central source, together with the CH3OH, SiO, CS, and H2CO column densities.
Results: Of the targeted molecules, we detected lines of c-C3H2, CH3OH, CS, C34S, SO, DCN, DCO+, H2CO, HC3N, HDCO, and SiO. One of the methanol lines appears to be a maser line. The detection of this class I maser and the SiO line in L1451-mm support the presence of a low-velocity and compact outflow. The excitation conditions of the thermal lines of methanol are also compatible with shocks (H2 density of ~3 × 106 cm−3 and a temperature higher than 40 K).
Conclusions: Although these low-velocity outflows are theoretically predicted by some models of FHSC, these models also predict the shock temperature to be below 20 K, that is, not evaporating methanol. In addition, the predicted velocities would not erode the grains and release silicon in the gas phase. We therefore conclude that these new observations favor the hypothesis that L1451-mm would be at a very early protostellar stage, launching an outflow nearly on the plane of the sky with a higher velocity than is observed.

The reduced datacubes used for this work are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

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Contributor : Nathalie POTHIER Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, November 21, 2022 - 2:36:31 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, November 22, 2022 - 4:00:19 AM


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V. Wakelam, A. Coutens, P. Gratier, T. H. G. Vidal, N. Vaytet. Confirmation of the outflow in L1451-mm: SiO line and CH3OH maser detections. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2022, 666, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202243459⟩. ⟨insu-03863529⟩



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