AB Aur, a Rosetta stone for studies of planet formation. II. H<SUB>2</SUB>S detection and sulfur budget - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A Year : 2022

AB Aur, a Rosetta stone for studies of planet formation. II. H2S detection and sulfur budget

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Abstract

Context. The sulfur abundance is poorly known in most environments. Yet, deriving the sulfur abundance is key to understanding the evolution of the chemistry from molecular clouds to planetary atmospheres. We present observations of H2S 110-101 at 168.763 GHz toward the Herbig Ae star AB Aur.
Aims: We aim to study the abundance of sulfuretted species toward AB Aur and to constrain how different species and phases contribute to the sulfur budget.
Methods: We present new NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) interferometric observations of the continuum and H2S 110-101 line at 168.763 GHz toward AB Aur. We derived radial and azimuthal profiles and used them to compare the geometrical distribution of different species in the disk. Assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE), we derived column density and abundance maps for H2S, and we further used Nautilus to produce a more detailed model of the chemical abundances at different heights over the mid-plane at a distance of r = 200 au.
Results: We have resolved H2S emission in the AB Aur protoplanetary disk. The emission comes from a ring extending from 0.67″ (~109 au) to 1.69″ (~275 au). Assuming T = 30 K, nH = 109 cm−3, and an ortho-to-para ratio of three, we derived a column density of (2.3 ± 0.5) × 1013 cm−2. Under simple assumptions, we derived an abundance of (3.1 ± 0.8) × 10−10 with respect to H nuclei, which we compare with Nautilus models to deepen our understanding of the sulfur chemistry in protoplanetary disks. Chemical models indicate that H2S is an important sulfur carrier in the solid and gas phase. We also find an important transition at a height of ~12 au, where the sulfur budget moves from being dominated by ice species to being dominated by gas species.
Conclusions: We confirm that present-day models still struggle to simultaneously reproduce the observed column densities of the different sulfuretted species, and the observed abundances are still orders of magnitude away from the cosmic sulfur abundance. Studying sulfuretted species in detail in the different phases of the interstellar medium is key to solving the issue.
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Dates and versions

insu-03860308 , version 1 (19-11-2022)

Licence

Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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P. Rivière-Marichalar, A. Fuente, G. Esplugues, V. Wakelam, R. Le Gal, et al.. AB Aur, a Rosetta stone for studies of planet formation. II. H2S detection and sulfur budget. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2022, 665, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202142906⟩. ⟨insu-03860308⟩
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