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Journal Articles Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Year : 2022

Evolution of Hen 3-1357, the Stingray Nebula


The spectroscopic evolution of Hen 3-1357, the Stingray Nebula, is presented by analysing data from 1990 to 2021. High-resolution data obtained in 2021 with South African Large Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph and in 2009 with European Southern Observatory-Very Large Telescope UVES spectrograph are used to determine physical conditions and chemical abundances in the nebula. From comparison of these data with data from different epochs it is found that the intensity of highly ionized emission lines has been decreasing with time, while the emission of low-ionization lines has been increasing, confirming that the nebula is recombining, lowering its excitation class, as a consequence of the changes in the central star which in 2002 had an effective temperature of 60 000 K and from then it has been getting colder. The present effective temperature of the central star is about 40 000 K. It has been suggested that the central star has suffered a late thermal pulse and it is returning to the AGB phase. The nebular chemistry of Hen 3-1357 indicates that all the elements, except He and Ne, present subsolar abundances. The comparison of the nebular abundances with the values predicted by stellar nucleosynthesis models at the end of the AGB phase shows that the central star had an initial mass lower than 1.5 M. We estimated the ADF(O+2) to be between 2.6 and 3.5.
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insu-03860295 , version 1 (07-04-2023)



Miriam Peña, Mudumba Parthasarathy, Francisco Ruiz-Escobedo, Rajeev Manick. Evolution of Hen 3-1357, the Stingray Nebula. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2022, 515, pp.1459-1468. ⟨10.1093/mnras/stac1750⟩. ⟨insu-03860295⟩
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