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Redundant apodization for direct imaging of exoplanets. II. Application to island effects

Abstract : Context. Telescope pupil fragmentation from spiders generates specific aberrations that have been observed at various telescopes and are expected on the 30-meter class telescopes under construction. This is known as the island effect, and it induces differential pistons, tips, and tilts on the pupil petals, deforming the instrumental point spread function (PSF); it is one of the main limitations to the direct detection of exoplanets with high-contrast imaging. These petal-level aberrations can have different origins such as the low-wind effect or petaling errors in the adaptive optics reconstruction.
Aims: In this paper, we propose a method for alleviating the impact of the aberrations induced by island effects on high-contrast imaging by adapting the coronagraph design in order to increase its robustness to petal-level aberrations.
Methods: Following a method first developed and applied on robustness to errors due to primary mirror segmentation (e.g., segment phasing errors, missing segments), we developed and tested redundant apodized pupils (RAP): apodizers designed at the petal-scale, then duplicated and rotated to mimic the pupil petal geometry.
Results: We applied this concept to the ELT architecture, made of six identical petals, to yield a 10−6 contrast in a dark region from 8 to 40λ/D. Both amplitude and phase apodizers proposed in this paper are robust to differential pistons between petals, with minimal degradation to their coronagraphic PSFs and contrast levels. In addition, they are also more robust to petal-level tip-tilt errors than classical apodizers designed for the whole pupil, with which the limit of contrast of 10−6 in the coronagraph dark zone is achieved for constraints up to 2 rad RMS of these petal-level modes.
Conclusions: In this paper the RAP concept proves its robustness to island effects (low-wind effect and post-adaptive optics petaling), with an application to the ELT architecture. It can also be considered for other 8- to 30-m class ground-based units such as VLT/SPHERE, Subaru/SCExAO, GMT/GMagAO-X, and TMT/PSI.
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Submitted on : Saturday, November 19, 2022 - 8:24:34 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, November 20, 2022 - 3:04:59 AM

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Lucie Leboulleux, Alexis Carlotti, Mamadou N'Diaye, Arielle Bertrou-Cantou, Julien Milli, et al.. Redundant apodization for direct imaging of exoplanets. II. Application to island effects. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2022, 666, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202243413⟩. ⟨insu-03860284⟩

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