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Journal Articles Nature Year : 2022

Rapid shifting of a deep magmatic source at Fagradalsfjall volcano, Iceland

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1
Sæmundur A. Halldórsson
  • Function : Author
Edward W. Marshall
  • Function : Author
Alberto Caracciolo
  • Function : Author
Simon Matthews
  • Function : Author
Enikő Bali
  • Function : Author
Maja B. Rasmussen
  • Function : Author
Eemu Ranta
  • Function : Author
Jóhann Gunnarsson Robin
  • Function : Author
Gudmundur H. Gudfinnsson
  • Function : Author
Olgeir Sigmarsson
John Maclennan
  • Function : Author
Matthew G. Jackson
  • Function : Author
Martin J. Whitehouse
  • Function : Author
Heejin Jeon
  • Function : Author
Quinten H. A. van der Meer
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey K. Mibei
  • Function : Author
Maarit H. Kalliokoski
  • Function : Author
Maria M. Repczynska
  • Function : Author
Rebekka Hlín Rúnarsdóttir
  • Function : Author
Gylfi Sigurdsson
  • Function : Author
Melissa Anne Pfeffer
  • Function : Author
Samuel W. Scott
  • Function : Author
Ríkey Kjartansdóttir
  • Function : Author
Barbara I. Kleine
  • Function : Author
Clive Oppenheimer
  • Function : Author
Alessandro Aiuppa
  • Function : Author
Evgenia Ilyinskaya
  • Function : Author
Marcello Bitetto
  • Function : Author
Gaetano Giudice
  • Function : Author
Andri Stefánsson
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Recent Icelandic rifting events have illuminated the roles of centralized crustal magma reservoirs and lateral magma transport1-4, important characteristics of mid-ocean ridge magmatism1,5. A consequence of such shallow crustal processing of magmas4,5 is the overprinting of signatures that trace the origin, evolution and transport of melts in the uppermost mantle and lowermost crust6,7. Here we present unique insights into processes occurring in this zone from integrated petrologic and geochemical studies of the 2021 Fagradalsfjall eruption on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland. Geochemical analyses of basalts erupted during the first 50 days of the eruption, combined with associated gas emissions, reveal direct sourcing from a near-Moho magma storage zone. Geochemical proxies, which signify different mantle compositions and melting conditions, changed at a rate unparalleled for individual basaltic eruptions globally. Initially, the erupted lava was dominated by melts sourced from the shallowest mantle but over the following three weeks became increasingly dominated by magmas generated at a greater depth. This exceptionally rapid trend in erupted compositions provides an unprecedented temporal record of magma mixing that filters the mantle signal, consistent with processing in near-Moho melt lenses containing 107-108 m3 of basaltic magma. Exposing previously inaccessible parts of this key magma processing zone to near-real-time investigations provides new insights into the timescales and operational mode of basaltic magma systems.
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Dates and versions

insu-03825081 , version 1 (15-11-2022)

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Sæmundur A. Halldórsson, Edward W. Marshall, Alberto Caracciolo, Simon Matthews, Enikő Bali, et al.. Rapid shifting of a deep magmatic source at Fagradalsfjall volcano, Iceland. Nature, 2022, 609, pp.529-534. ⟨10.1038/s41586-022-04981-x⟩. ⟨insu-03825081⟩
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