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Discovery of an asteroid family linked to (22) Kalliope and its moon Linus

Abstract :
Aims: According to adaptive-optics observations, (22) Kalliope is a 150-km-wide, dense, and differentiated body. Here, we interpret (22) Kalliope in the context of the bodies in its surroundings. While there is a known moon, Linus, with a 5:1 size ratio, no family has been reported in the literature, which is in contradiction with the existence of the moon.
Methods: Using the hierarchical clustering method along with physical data, we identified the Kalliope family. It had previously been associated with (7481) San Marcello. We then used various models (N-body, Monte Carlo, and SPH) of its orbital and collisional evolution, including the breakup of the parent body, to estimate the dynamical age of the family and address its link to Linus.
Results: The best-fit age is (900 ± 100) Myr according to our collisional model; this is in agreement with the position of (22) Kalliope, which was modified by chaotic diffusion due to 4-1-1 three-body resonance with Jupiter and Saturn. It seems possible that Linus and the Kalliope family were created at the same time, although our SPH simulations show a variety of outcomes for both satellite size and the family size-frequency distribution. The shape of (22) Kalliope itself was most likely affected by the gravitational re-accumulation of `streams', which creates the characteristic hills observed on its surface. If the body was differentiated, its internal structure is most likely asymmetric.

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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 20, 2022 - 9:10:19 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 4, 2022 - 2:42:24 PM

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M. Brož, M. Ferrais, P. Vernazza, P. Ševeček, M. Jutzi. Discovery of an asteroid family linked to (22) Kalliope and its moon Linus. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2022, 664, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202243628⟩. ⟨insu-03780760⟩

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