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Predicting HCN, HCO+, multi-transition CO, and dust emission of star-forming galaxies. Constraining the properties of resolved gas and dust disks of local spiral galaxies

Abstract : The interstellar medium is a turbulent, multiphase, and multi-scale medium that follows scaling relations that link the surface density, volume density, and velocity dispersion with the cloud size. Galactic clouds range from below 1 pc to about 100 pc in size. Extragalactic clouds appear to follow the same range, although they are only now becoming observable in atomic and molecular lines. Analytical models of galactic gaseous disks need to take the multi-scale and multiphase nature of the interstellar medium into account. They can be described as clumpy star-forming accretion disks in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, with the mid-plane pressure balancing the gravity of the gaseous and stellar disk. Interstellar medium turbulence is taken into account by applying Galactic scaling relations to the cold atomic and molecular gas phases. Turbulence is maintained through energy injection by supernovae. With the determination of the gas mass fraction at a given spatial scale, the equilibrium gas temperature between turbulent heating and line cooling, the molecular abundances, and the molecular line emission can be calculated. The resulting model radial profiles of infrared, HI, CO, HCN, and HCO+ emission are compared to THINGS, HERACLES, EMPIRE, SINGS, and GALEX observations of 17 local spiral galaxies. The model free parameters were constrained for each galactic radius independently. The Toomre parameter, which measures the stability against star formation (cloud collapse), exceeds unity in the inner disk of a significant number of galaxies. In two galaxies it also exceeds unity in the outer disk. Therefore, in spiral galaxies Qtot = 1 is not ubiquitous. The model gas velocity dispersion is consistent with the observed HI velocity dispersion where available. Within our model, HCN and HCO+ is already detectable in relatively low-density gas (∼1000 cm−3). We derive CO and HCN conversion factors and molecular gas depletion times. Both conversion factors are consistent with values found in the literature. Whereas in the massive galaxies the viscous timescale greatly exceeds the star-formation timescale, the viscous timescale is smaller than the star-formation timescale within R ∼ 2 Rd, the disk scale length, in the low-mass galaxies. We suggest that massive spiral galaxies undergo starvation in the absence of gas accretion from the halo, whereas in low-mass galaxies the fuel for star formation reaches R ∼ 2 Rd from outside via a thick gas disk component with a high radial infall velocity observable in the HI line.
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https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-03764720
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 1, 2022 - 7:46:38 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 4, 2022 - 2:42:24 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, December 2, 2022 - 6:07:31 PM

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T. Lizée, B. Vollmer, J. Braine, P. Gratier, F. Bigiel. Predicting HCN, HCO+, multi-transition CO, and dust emission of star-forming galaxies. Constraining the properties of resolved gas and dust disks of local spiral galaxies. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2022, 663, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202142480⟩. ⟨insu-03764720⟩

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