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Compositionally and density stratified igneous terrain in Jezero crater, Mars

Roger C. Wiens 1, * Arya Udry 2 Olivier Beyssac 3 Cathy Nantin-Nataf 4 Nicolas Mangold 5 Agnè Cousin 6 Lucien Mandon 7 Tanja Bosak 8 Olivier Forni 6 Scott M Mclennan 9 Violaine Sautter 3 Adrian Brown 10 Karim Benzerara 3 Jeffrey R. Johnson 11 Lisa Mayhew 12 Sylvestre Maurice 6 Ryan B. Anderson 13 Samuel M. Clegg 1 Larry Crumpler 14 Travis S. J. Gabriel 13 Patrick J. Gasda 1 James Hall 8 Briony H. N. Horgan 15 Linda Kah 16 Carey Legett Iv 1 Juan Manuel Madariaga 17 Pierre-Yves Meslin 6 Ann M. Ollila 1 François Poulet 18 Clément Royer 7 Shiv K. Sharma 19 Sandra Siljeström 20 Justin I. Simon 21 Tayro E. Acosta-Maeda 19 César Alvarez-Llamas 22 S. Michael Angel 23 Gorka Arana 17 Pierre Beck 24 Sylvain Bernard 3 Tanguy Bertrand 7 Bruno Bousquet 25 Kepa Castro 17 Baptiste Chide 1 Elise Clavé 25 Ed Cloutis 26 Stephanie Connell 26 Erwin Dehouck 4 Gilles Dromart 4 Woodward Fischer 27 Thierry Fouchet 7 Raymond Francis 28 Jens Frydenvang 29 Olivier Gasnault 6 Erin Gibbons 30 Sanjeev Gupta 31 Elisabeth M. Hausrath 2 Xavier Jacob 32 Hemani Kalucha 27 Evan Kelly 19 Elise Wright Knutsen 33 Nina L Lanza 1 Javier Laserna 22 Jérémie Lasue 6 Stéphane Le Mouélic 5 Richard Leveille 30 Guillermo Lopez-Reyes 34 Ralph D. Lorenz 11 Jose Antonio Manrique 34 Jesus Martinez-Frias 35 Timothy Mcconnochie 36 Noureddine Melikechi 37 David Mimoun 38 Franck Montmessin 33 Javier Moros 22 Naomi Murdoch 38 Paolo Pilleri 6 Cédric Pilorget 18 Patrick Pinet 6 William Rapin 6 Fernando Rull 34 Susanne Schröder 39 David L. Shuster 40 Rebecca J Smith 9 Alexander E Stott 38 Jesse Tarnas 28 Nathalie Turenne 26 Marco Veneranda 34 David S. Vogt 39 Benjamin P. Weiss 8 Peter Willis 28 Kathryn M. Stack 28 Kenneth H. Williford 28 Kenneth A. Farley 27 
* Corresponding author
33 PLANETO - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : Before Perseverance, Jezero crater’s floor was variably hypothesized to have a lacustrine, lava, volcanic airfall, or aeolian origin. SuperCam observations in the first 286 Mars days on Mars revealed a volcanic and intrusive terrain with compositional and density stratification. The dominant lithology along the traverse is basaltic, with plagioclase enrichment in stratigraphically higher locations. Stratigraphically lower, layered rocks are richer in normative pyroxene. The lowest observed unit has the highest inferred density and is olivine-rich with coarse (1.5 millimeters) euhedral, relatively unweathered grains, suggesting a cumulate origin. This is the first martian cumulate and shows similarities to martian meteorites, which also express olivine disequilibrium. Alteration materials including carbonates, sulfates, perchlorates, hydrated silicates, and iron oxides are pervasive but low in abundance, suggesting relatively brief lacustrine conditions. Orbital observations link the Jezero floor lithology to the broader Nili-Syrtis region,suggesting that density-driven compositional stratification is a regional characteristic.
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Roger C. Wiens, Arya Udry, Olivier Beyssac, Cathy Nantin-Nataf, Nicolas Mangold, et al.. Compositionally and density stratified igneous terrain in Jezero crater, Mars. Science Advances , American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2022, 8 (34), ⟨10.1126/sciadv.abo3399⟩. ⟨insu-03764175⟩

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