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Journal Articles Geophysical Journal International Year : 2017

Pre-processing ambient noise cross-correlations with equalizing the covariance matrix eigenspectrum

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Abstract

Passive imaging techniques from ambient seismic noise requires a nearly isotropic distribution of the noise sources in order to ensure reliable traveltime measurements between seismic stations. However, real ambient seismic noise often partially fulfils this condition. It is generated in preferential areas (in deep ocean or near continental shores), and some highly coherent pulse-like signals may be present in the data such as those generated by earthquakes. Several pre-processing techniques have been developed in order to attenuate the directional and deterministic behaviour of this real ambient noise. Most of them are applied to individual seismograms before cross-correlation computation. The most widely used techniques are the spectral whitening and temporal smoothing of the individual seismic traces. We here propose an additional pre-processing to be used together with the classical ones, which is based on the spatial analysis of the seismic wavefield. We compute the cross-spectra between all available stations pairs in spectral domain, leading to the data covariance matrix. We apply a one-bit normalization to the covariance matrix eigenspectrum before extracting the cross-correlations in the time domain. The efficiency of the method is shown with several numerical tests. We apply the method to the data collected by the USArray, when the M8.8 Maule earthquake occurred on 2010 February 27. The method shows a clear improvement compared with the classical equalization to attenuate the highly energetic and coherent waves incoming from the earthquake, and allows to perform reliable traveltime measurement even in the presence of the earthquake.
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Dates and versions

insu-03748842 , version 1 (10-08-2022)

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Léonard Seydoux, Julien de Rosny, Nikolai M. Shapiro. Pre-processing ambient noise cross-correlations with equalizing the covariance matrix eigenspectrum. Geophysical Journal International, 2017, 210, pp.1432-1449. ⟨10.1093/gji/ggx250⟩. ⟨insu-03748842⟩
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