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Journal Articles The Astronomical Journal Year : 2021

Diving Beneath the Sea of Stellar Activity: Chromatic Radial Velocities of the Young AU Mic Planetary System

Bryson L. Cale
  • Function : Author
Michael Reefe
  • Function : Author
Peter Plavchan
  • Function : Author
Angelle Tanner
  • Function : Author
Eric Gaidos
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Gagné
  • Function : Author
Peter Gao
  • Function : Author
Stephen R. Kane
  • Function : Author
Víctor J. S. Béjar
  • Function : Author
Nicolas Lodieu
  • Function : Author
Guillem Anglada-Escudé
  • Function : Author
Ignasi Ribas
  • Function : Author
Enric Pallé
  • Function : Author
Andreas Quirrenbach
  • Function : Author
Pedro J. Amado
  • Function : Author
Ansgar Reiners
  • Function : Author
José A. Caballero
  • Function : Author
María Rosa Zapatero Osorio
  • Function : Author
Stefan Dreizler
  • Function : Author
Andrew W. Howard
  • Function : Author
Benjamin J. Fulton
  • Function : Author
Sharon Xuesong Wang
  • Function : Author
Kevin I. Collins
  • Function : Author
Mohammed El Mufti
  • Function : Author
Justin Wittrock
  • Function : Author
Emily A. Gilbert
  • Function : Author
Thomas Barclay
  • Function : Author
Baptiste Klein
  • Function : Author
Robert Wittenmyer
  • Function : Author
Duncan Wright
  • Function : Author
Brett Addison
  • Function : Author
Teruyuki Hirano
  • Function : Author
Motohide Tamura
  • Function : Author
Takayuki Kotani
  • Function : Author
Norio Narita
  • Function : Author
David Vermilion
  • Function : Author
Rena A. Lee
  • Function : Author
Claire Geneser
  • Function : Author
Johanna Teske
  • Function : Author
Samuel N. Quinn
  • Function : Author
David W. Latham
  • Function : Author
Gilbert A. Esquerdo
  • Function : Author
Michael L. Calkins
  • Function : Author
Perry Berlind
  • Function : Author
Farzaneh Zohrabi
  • Function : Author
Caitlin Stibbards
  • Function : Author
Srihan Kotnana
  • Function : Author
Jon Jenkins
  • Function : Author
Joseph D. Twicken
  • Function : Author
Christopher Henze
  • Function : Author
Richard Kidwell
  • Function : Author
Christopher Burke
  • Function : Author
Joel Villaseñor
  • Function : Author
Patricia Boyd
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present updated radial-velocity (RV) analyses of the AU Mic system. AU Mic is a young (22 Myr) early-M dwarf known to host two transiting planets-P b ~ 8.46 days, ${R}_{b}={4.38}_{-0.18}^{+0.18}\ {R}_{\oplus }$ , P c ~ 18.86 days, ${R}_{c}={3.51}_{-0.16}^{+0.16}\ {R}_{\oplus }$ . With visible RVs from Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical echelle Spectrographs (CARMENES)-VIS, CHIRON, HARPS, HIRES, MINERVA-Australis, and Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph, as well as near-infrared (NIR) RVs from CARMENES-NIR, CSHELL, IRD, iSHELL, NIRSPEC, and SPIRou, we provide a 5σ upper limit to the mass of AU Mic c of M c ≤ 20.13 M and present a refined mass of AU Mic b of ${M}_{b}={20.12}_{-1.57}^{+1.72}\ {M}_{\oplus }$ . Used in our analyses is a new RV modeling toolkit to exploit the wavelength dependence of stellar activity present in our RVs via wavelength-dependent Gaussian processes. By obtaining near-simultaneous visible and near-infrared RVs, we also compute the temporal evolution of RV "color" and introduce a regressional method to aid in isolating Keplerian from stellar activity signals when modeling RVs in future works. Using a multiwavelength Gaussian process model, we demonstrate the ability to recover injected planets at 5σ significance with semi-amplitudes down to ≍10 m s-1 with a known ephemeris, more than an order of magnitude below the stellar activity amplitude. However, we find that the accuracy of the recovered semi-amplitudes is ~50% for such signals with our model.

Dates and versions

insu-03748179 , version 1 (09-08-2022)

Identifiers

Cite

Bryson L. Cale, Michael Reefe, Peter Plavchan, Angelle Tanner, Eric Gaidos, et al.. Diving Beneath the Sea of Stellar Activity: Chromatic Radial Velocities of the Young AU Mic Planetary System. The Astronomical Journal, 2021, 162, ⟨10.3847/1538-3881/ac2c80⟩. ⟨insu-03748179⟩
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