https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-03726989Tantet, AlexisAlexisTantetLMD - Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (UMR 8539) - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - X - École polytechnique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Département des Géosciences - ENS Paris - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettresChekroun, Mickaël D.Mickaël D.ChekrounDijkstra, Henk A.Henk A.DijkstraNeelin, J. DavidJ. DavidNeelinRuelle-Pollicott Resonances of Stochastic Systems in Reduced State Space. Part II: Stochastic Hopf BifurcationHAL CCSD2020Ruelle-Pollicott resonancesStochastic bifurcationMarkov semigroupStochastic analysisErgodic theory[SDU] Sciences of the Universe [physics]POTHIER, Nathalie2022-07-19 08:14:082022-08-03 03:58:292022-07-19 08:14:08enJournal articles10.1007/s10955-020-02526-y1The spectrum of the generator (Kolmogorov operator) of a diffusion process, referred to as the Ruelle-Pollicott (RP) spectrum, provides a detailed characterization of correlation functions and power spectra of stochastic systems via decomposition formulas in terms of RP resonances; see Part I of this contribution (Chekroun et al. in Theory J Stat. 10.1007/s10955-020-02535-x, 2020). Stochastic analysis techniques relying on the theory of Markov semigroups for the study of the RP spectrum and a rigorous reduction method is presented in Part I Chekroun et al. (2020). This framework is here applied to study a stochastic Hopf bifurcation in view of characterizing the statistical properties of nonlinear oscillators perturbed by noise, depending on their stability. In light of the Hörmander theorem, it is first shown that the geometry of the unperturbed limit cycle, in particular its isochrons, i.e., the leaves of the stable manifold of the limit cycle generalizing the notion of phase, is essential to understand the effect of the noise and the phenomenon of phase diffusion. In addition, it is shown that the RP spectrum has a spectral gap, even at the bifurcation point, and that correlations decay exponentially fast. Explicit small-noise expansions of the RP eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are then obtained, away from the bifurcation point, based on the knowledge of the linearized deterministic dynamics and the characteristics of the noise. These formulas allow one to understand how the interaction of the noise with the deterministic dynamics affect the decay of correlations. Numerical results complement the study of the RP spectrum at the bifurcation point, revealing useful scaling laws. The analysis of the Markov semigroup for stochastic bifurcations is thus promising in providing a complementary approach to the more geometric random dynamical system (RDS) approach. This approach is not limited to low-dimensional systems and the reduction method presented in Chekroun et al. (2020) is applied to a stochastic model relevant to climate dynamics in the third part of this contribution (Tantet et al. in J Stat Phys. 10.1007/s10955-019-02444-8, 2019).