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Journal Articles Earth System Science Data Year : 2020

The HadGEM3-GA7.1 radiative kernel: the importance of a well-resolved stratosphere

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Abstract

We present top-of-atmosphere and surface radiative kernels based on the atmospheric component (GA7.1) of the HadGEM3 general circulation model developed by the UK Met Office. We show that the utility of radiative kernels for forcing adjustments in idealised CO2 perturbation experiments is greatest where there is sufficiently high resolution in the stratosphere in both the target climate model and the radiative kernel. This is because stratospheric cooling to a CO2 perturbation continues to increase with height, and low-resolution or low-top kernels or climate model output are unable to fully resolve the full stratospheric temperature adjustment. In the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), standard atmospheric model data are available up to 1 hPa on 19 pressure levels, which is a substantial advantage compared to CMIP5. We show in the IPSL-CM6A-LR model where a full set of climate diagnostics are available that the HadGEM3-GA7.1 kernel exhibits linear behaviour and the residual error term is small, as well as from a survey of kernels available in the literature that in general low-top radiative kernels underestimate the stratospheric temperature response. The HadGEM3-GA7.1 radiative kernels are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3594673 (Smith, 2019).
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insu-03726973 , version 1 (28-07-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Christopher J. Smith, Ryan J. Kramer, Adriana Sima. The HadGEM3-GA7.1 radiative kernel: the importance of a well-resolved stratosphere. Earth System Science Data, 2020, 12, pp.2157-2168. ⟨10.5194/essd-12-2157-2020⟩. ⟨insu-03726973⟩
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