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Multifaceted characteristics of dryland aridity changes in a warming world

Abstract : Drylands are an essential component of the Earth System and are among the most vulnerable to climate change. In this Review, we synthesize observational and modelling evidence to demonstrate emerging differences in dryland aridity dependent on the specific metric considered. Although warming heightens vapour pressure deficit and, thus, atmospheric demand for water in both the observations and the projections, these changes do not wholly propagate to exacerbate soil moisture and runoff deficits. Moreover, counter-intuitively, many arid ecosystems have exhibited significant greening and enhanced vegetation productivity since the 1980s. Such divergence between atmospheric and ecohydrological aridity changes can primarily be related to moisture limitations by dry soils and plant physiological regulations of evapotranspiration under elevated CO2. The latter process ameliorates water stress on plant growth and decelerates warming-enhanced water losses from soils, while simultaneously warming and drying the near-surface air. We place these climate-induced aridity changes in the context of exacerbated water scarcity driven by rapidly increasing anthropogenic needs for freshwater to support population growth and economic development. Under future warming, dryland ecosystems might respond non-linearly, caused by, for example, complex ecosystem-hydrology-human interactions and increased mortality risks from drought and heat stress, which is a foremost priority for future research.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 19, 2022 - 8:04:30 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, August 2, 2022 - 4:32:38 AM

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Xu Lian, Shilong Piao, Anping Chen, Chris Huntingford, Bojie Fu, et al.. Multifaceted characteristics of dryland aridity changes in a warming world. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 2021, 2, pp.232-250. ⟨10.1038/s43017-021-00144-0⟩. ⟨insu-03726946⟩

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