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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring

Kazunori Akiyama Juan Carlos Algaba Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Richard Anantua Keiichi Asada Rebecca Azulay Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball Mislav Baloković John Barrett Bradford A. Benson Dan Bintley Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Wilfred Boland Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Avery E. Broderick Dominique Broguiere Thomas Bronzwaer Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Andrew Chael Chi-Kwan Chan Shami Chatterjee Koushik Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Paul M. Chesler Ilje Cho Pierre Christian John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Yuzhu Cui Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 1 Jason Dexter Sheperd S. Doeleman Ralph P. Eatough Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish Ed Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas William T. Freeman Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Charles F. Gammie Roberto García Olivier Gentaz Boris Georgiev Ciriaco Goddi Roman Gold José L. Gómez Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Kazuhiro Hada Daryl Haggard Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales Michael D. Johnson Svetlana Jorstad Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Tomohisa Kawashima Garrett K. Keating Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jae-Young Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Motoki Kino Jun Yi Koay Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Michael Kramer Carsten Kramer Thomas P. Krichbaum Cheng-Yu Kuo Tod R. Lauer Sang-Sung Lee Aviad Levis Yan-Rong Li Zhiyuan Li Michael Lindqvist Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin Lonsdale Ru-Sen Lu Nicholas R. Macdonald Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Sera Markoff Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Lia Medeiros Karl M. Menten Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Kotaro Moriyama Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Gibwa Musoke Alejandro Mus Mejías Daniel Michalik Andrew Nadolski Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Ramesh Narayan Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Joey Neilsen Roberto Neri Chunchong Ni Aristeidis Noutsos Michael A. Nowak Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Feryal Özel Daniel C. M. Palumbo Jongho Park Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Dominic W. Pesce Vincent Piétu Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Ben Prather Jorge A. Preciado-López Dimitrios Psaltis Hung-Yi Pu Venkatessh Ramakrishnan Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Angelo Ricarte Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Mel Rose Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L. J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez David Sánchez-Arguelles Mahito Sasada Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Karl-Friedrich Schuster Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Paul Tiede Remo P. J. Tilanus Michael Titus Kenji Toma Pablo Torne Tyler Trent Efthalia Traianou Sascha Trippe Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Maciek Wielgus George N. Wong Qingwen Wu Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Guang-Yao Zhao Shan-Shan Zhao 
Abstract : In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a compact asymmetric ring-like source morphology. This structure originates from synchrotron emission produced by relativistic plasma located in the immediate vicinity of the black hole. Here we present the corresponding linear-polarimetric EHT images of the center of M87. We find that only a part of the ring is significantly polarized. The resolved fractional linear polarization has a maximum located in the southwest part of the ring, where it rises to the level of ∼15%. The polarization position angles are arranged in a nearly azimuthal pattern. We perform quantitative measurements of relevant polarimetric properties of the compact emission and find evidence for the temporal evolution of the polarized source structure over one week of EHT observations. The details of the polarimetric data reduction and calibration methodology are provided. We carry out the data analysis using multiple independent imaging and modeling techniques, each of which is validated against a suite of synthetic data sets. The gross polarimetric structure and its apparent evolution with time are insensitive to the method used to reconstruct the image. These polarimetric images carry information about the structure of the magnetic fields responsible for the synchrotron emission. Their physical interpretation is discussed in an accompanying publication.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 5, 2022 - 9:08:20 AM
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Kazunori Akiyama, Juan Carlos Algaba, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Richard Anantua, et al.. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021, 910, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/abe71d⟩. ⟨insu-03713798⟩

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