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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VIII. Magnetic Field Structure near The Event Horizon

Kazunori Akiyama Juan Carlos Algaba Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Richard Anantua Keiichi Asada Rebecca Azulay Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball Mislav Baloković John Barrett Bradford A. Benson Dan Bintley Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Wilfred Boland Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Avery E. Broderick Dominique Broguiere Thomas Bronzwaer Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Andrew Chael Chi-Kwan Chan Shami Chatterjee Koushik Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Paul M. Chesler Ilje Cho Pierre Christian John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Yuzhu Cui Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 1 Jason Dexter Sheperd S. Doeleman Ralph P. Eatough Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish Ed Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Charles F. Gammie Roberto García Zachary Gelles Olivier Gentaz Boris Georgiev Ciriaco Goddi Roman Gold José L. Gómez Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Kazuhiro Hada Daryl Haggard Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Elizabeth Himwich Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales Michael D. Johnson Svetlana Jorstad Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Tomohisa Kawashima Garrett K. Keating Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jae-Young Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Motoki Kino Jun Yi Koay Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Michael Kramer Carsten Kramer Thomas P. Krichbaum Cheng-Yu Kuo Tod R. Lauer Sang-Sung Lee Aviad Levis Yan-Rong Li Zhiyuan Li Michael Lindqvist Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin Lonsdale Ru-Sen Lu Nicholas R. Macdonald Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Sera Markoff Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Lia Medeiros Karl M. Menten Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Kotaro Moriyama Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Gibwa Musoke Alejandro Mus Mejías Daniel Michalik Andrew Nadolski Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Ramesh Narayan Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Joey Neilsen Roberto Neri Chunchong Ni Aristeidis Noutsos Michael A. Nowak Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Feryal Özel Daniel C. M. Palumbo Jongho Park Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Dominic W. Pesce Vincent Piétu Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Ben Prather Jorge A. Preciado-López Dimitrios Psaltis Hung-Yi Pu Venkatessh Ramakrishnan Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Angelo Ricarte Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Mel Rose Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L. J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez David Sánchez-Arguelles Mahito Sasada Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Karl-Friedrich Schuster Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Paul Tiede Remo P. J. Tilanus Michael Titus Kenji Toma Pablo Torne Tyler Trent Efthalia Traianou Sascha Trippe Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Maciek Wielgus George N. Wong Qingwen Wu Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Guang-Yao Zhao Shan-Shan Zhao 
Abstract : Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations at 230 GHz have now imaged polarized emission around the supermassive black hole in M87 on event-horizon scales. This polarized synchrotron radiation probes the structure of magnetic fields and the plasma properties near the black hole. Here we compare the resolved polarization structure observed by the EHT, along with simultaneous unresolved observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, to expectations from theoretical models. The low fractional linear polarization in the resolved image suggests that the polarization is scrambled on scales smaller than the EHT beam, which we attribute to Faraday rotation internal to the emission region. We estimate the average density ne ∼ 104-7 cm-3, magnetic field strength B ∼ 1-30 G, and electron temperature Te ∼ (1-12) × 1010 K of the radiating plasma in a simple one-zone emission model. We show that the net azimuthal linear polarization pattern may result from organized, poloidal magnetic fields in the emission region. In a quantitative comparison with a large library of simulated polarimetric images from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations, we identify a subset of physical models that can explain critical features of the polarimetric EHT observations while producing a relativistic jet of sufficient power. The consistent GRMHD models are all of magnetically arrested accretion disks, where near-horizon magnetic fields are dynamically important. We use the models to infer a mass accretion rate onto the black hole in M87 of (3-20) × 10-4 M yr-1.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 5, 2022 - 9:05:43 AM
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Kazunori Akiyama, Juan Carlos Algaba, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Richard Anantua, et al.. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VIII. Magnetic Field Structure near The Event Horizon. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021, 910, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/abe4de⟩. ⟨insu-03713797⟩

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