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Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2021

Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA

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Ciriaco Goddi
  • Function : Author
Iván Martí-Vidal
  • Function : Author
Hugo Messias
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
Jason Dexter
  • Function : Author
Daniel P. Marrone
  • Function : Author
Monika Moscibrodzka
  • Function : Author
Hiroshi Nagai
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey B. Crew
  • Function : Author
José L. Gómez
  • Function : Author
C. M. Violette Impellizzeri
  • Function : Author
Michael Janssen
  • Function : Author
Matthias Kadler
  • Function : Author
Thomas P. Krichbaum
  • Function : Author
Rocco Lico
  • Function : Author
Lynn D. Matthews
  • Function : Author
Antonios Nathanail
  • Function : Author
Angelo Ricarte
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Ros
  • Function : Author
Ziri Younsi
  • Function : Author
Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Wilfred Boland
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Paul M. Chesler
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
John E. Conway
  • Function : Author
James M. Cordes
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Crawford
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
  • Function : Author
Yuzhu Cui
  • Function : Author
Jordy Davelaar
  • Function : Author
Mariafelicia de Laurentis
  • Function : Author
Roger Deane
  • Function : Author
Jessica Dempsey
  • Function : Author
Sheperd S. Doeleman
  • Function : Author
Ralph P. Eatough
  • Function : Author
Heino Falcke
  • Function : Author
Joseph Farah
  • Function : Author
Vincent L. Fish
  • Function : Author
Ed Fomalont
  • Function : Author
H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
  • Function : Author
William T. Freeman
  • Function : Author
Per Friberg
  • Function : Author
Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
  • Function : Author
Charles F. Gammie
  • Function : Author
Roberto García
  • Function : Author
Olivier Gentaz
  • Function : Author
Boris Georgiev
  • Function : Author
Roman Gold
  • Function : Author
Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
  • Function : Author
Minfeng Gu
  • Function : Author
Mark Gurwell
  • Function : Author
Kazuhiro Hada
  • Function : Author
Daryl Haggard
  • Function : Author
Michael H. Hecht
  • Function : Author
Ronald Hesper
  • Function : Author
Luis C. Ho
  • Function : Author
Paul Ho
  • Function : Author
Mareki Honma
  • Function : Author
Chih-Wei L. Huang
  • Function : Author
Lei Huang
  • Function : Author
David H. Hughes
  • Function : Author
Makoto Inoue
  • Function : Author
Sara Issaoun
  • Function : Author
David J. James
  • Function : Author
Buell T. Jannuzi
  • Function : Author
Britton Jeter
  • Function : Author
Wu Jiang
  • Function : Author
Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales
  • Function : Author
Michael D. Johnson
  • Function : Author
Svetlana Jorstad
  • Function : Author
Taehyun Jung
  • Function : Author
Mansour Karami
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Karuppusamy
  • Function : Author
Tomohisa Kawashima
  • Function : Author
Garrett K. Keating
  • Function : Author
Mark Kettenis
  • Function : Author
Dong-Jin Kim
  • Function : Author
Jae-Young Kim
  • Function : Author
Jongsoo Kim
  • Function : Author
Junhan Kim
  • Function : Author
Motoki Kino
  • Function : Author
Jun Yi Koay
  • Function : Author
Yutaro Kofuji
  • Function : Author
Patrick M. Koch
  • Function : Author
Shoko Koyama
  • Function : Author
Michael Kramer
  • Function : Author
Carsten Kramer
  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Tod R. Lauer
  • Function : Author
Sang-Sung Lee
  • Function : Author
Aviad Levis
  • Function : Author
Yan-Rong Li
  • Function : Author
Zhiyuan Li
  • Function : Author
Michael Lindqvist
  • Function : Author
Greg Lindahl
  • Function : Author
Jun Liu
  • Function : Author
Kuo Liu
  • Function : Author
Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Function : Author
Wen-Ping Lo
  • Function : Author
Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Function : Author
Laurent Loinard
  • Function : Author
Colin Lonsdale
  • Function : Author
Ru-Sen Lu
  • Function : Author
Nicholas R. Macdonald
  • Function : Author
Jirong Mao
  • Function : Author
Nicola Marchili
  • Function : Author
Sera Markoff
  • Function : Author
Alan P. Marscher
  • Function : Author
Satoki Matsushita
  • Function : Author
Lia Medeiros
  • Function : Author
Karl M. Menten
  • Function : Author
Izumi Mizuno
  • Function : Author
Yosuke Mizuno
  • Function : Author
James M. Moran
  • Function : Author
Kotaro Moriyama
  • Function : Author
Cornelia Müller
  • Function : Author
Gibwa Musoke
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Mus Mejías
  • Function : Author
Neil M. Nagar
  • Function : Author
Masanori Nakamura
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Narayan
  • Function : Author
Gopal Narayanan
  • Function : Author
Iniyan Natarajan
  • Function : Author
Joey Neilsen
  • Function : Author
Roberto Neri
  • Function : Author
Chunchong Ni
  • Function : Author
Aristeidis Noutsos
  • Function : Author
Michael A. Nowak
  • Function : Author
Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
  • Function : Author
Gisela N. Ortiz-León
  • Function : Author
Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Feryal Özel
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
  • Function : Author
Jongho Park
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
  • Function : Author
Richard Plambeck
  • Function : Author
Aleksandar Popstefanija
  • Function : Author
Oliver Porth
  • Function : Author
Felix M. Pötzl
  • Function : Author
Ben Prather
  • Function : Author
Jorge A. Preciado-López
  • Function : Author
Dimitrios Psaltis
  • Function : Author
Hung-Yi Pu
  • Function : Author
Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Ramprasad Rao
  • Function : Author
Mark G. Rawlings
  • Function : Author
Alexander W. Raymond
  • Function : Author
Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Bart Ripperda
  • Function : Author
Freek Roelofs
  • Function : Author
Alan Rogers
  • Function : Author
Mel Rose
  • Function : Author
Arash Roshanineshat
  • Function : Author
Helge Rottmann
  • Function : Author
Alan L. Roy
  • Function : Author
Chet Ruszczyk
  • Function : Author
Kazi L. J. Rygl
  • Function : Author
Salvador Sánchez
  • Function : Author
David Sánchez-Arguelles
  • Function : Author
Mahito Sasada
  • Function : Author
Tuomas Savolainen
  • Function : Author
F. Peter Schloerb
  • Function : Author
Karl-Friedrich Schuster
  • Function : Author
Lijing Shao
  • Function : Author
Zhiqiang Shen
  • Function : Author
Des Small
  • Function : Author
Bong Won Sohn
  • Function : Author
Jason Soohoo
  • Function : Author
He Sun
  • Function : Author
Fumie Tazaki
  • Function : Author
Alexandra J. Tetarenko
  • Function : Author
Paul Tiede
  • Function : Author
Remo P. J. Tilanus
  • Function : Author
Michael Titus
  • Function : Author
Kenji Toma
  • Function : Author
Pablo Torne
  • Function : Author
Tyler Trent
  • Function : Author
Efthalia Traianou
  • Function : Author
Sascha Trippe
  • Function : Author
Ilse van Bemmel
  • Function : Author
Huib Jan van Langevelde
  • Function : Author
Daniel R. van Rossum
  • Function : Author
Jan Wagner
  • Function : Author
Derek Ward-Thompson
  • Function : Author
John Wardle
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Weintroub
  • Function : Author
Norbert Wex
  • Function : Author
Robert Wharton
  • Function : Author
Maciek Wielgus
  • Function : Author
George N. Wong
  • Function : Author
Qingwen Wu
  • Function : Author
Doosoo Yoon
  • Function : Author
André Young
  • Function : Author
Ken Young
  • Function : Author
Feng Yuan
  • Function : Author
Ye-Fei Yuan
  • Function : Author
J. Anton Zensus
  • Function : Author
Guang-Yao Zhao
  • Function : Author
Shan-Shan Zhao
  • Function : Author
Gabriele Bruni
  • Function : Author
A. Gopakumar
  • Function : Author
Antonio Hernández-Gómez
  • Function : Author
Ruben Herrero-Illana
  • Function : Author
Adam Ingram
  • Function : Author
S. Komossa
  • Function : Author
Y. Y. Kovalev
  • Function : Author
Dirk Muders
  • Function : Author
Manel Perucho
  • Function : Author
Florian Rösch
  • Function : Author
Mauri Valtonen
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present the results from a full polarization study carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the first Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) campaign, which was conducted in 2017 April in the λ3 mm and λ1.3 mm bands, in concert with the Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) and the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), respectively. We determine the polarization and Faraday properties of all VLBI targets, including Sgr A*, M87, and a dozen radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in the two bands at several epochs in a time window of 10 days. We detect high linear polarization fractions (2%-15%) and large rotation measures (RM > 103.3-105.5 rad m-2), confirming the trends of previous AGN studies at millimeter wavelengths. We find that blazars are more strongly polarized than other AGNs in the sample, while exhibiting (on average) order-of-magnitude lower RM values, consistent with the AGN viewing angle unification scheme. For Sgr A* we report a mean RM of (-4.2 ± 0.3) × 105 rad m-2 at 1.3 mm, consistent with measurements over the past decade and, for the first time, an RM of (-2.1 ± 0.1) × 105 rad m-2 at 3 mm, suggesting that about half of the Faraday rotation at 1.3 mm may occur between the 3 mm photosphere and the 1.3 mm source. We also report the first unambiguous measurement of RM toward the M87 nucleus at millimeter wavelengths, which undergoes significant changes in magnitude and sign reversals on a one year timescale, spanning the range from -1.2 to 0.3 × 105 rad m-2 at 3 mm and -4.1 to 1.5 × 105 rad m-2 at 1.3 mm. Given this time variability, we argue that, unlike the case of Sgr A*, the RM in M87 does not provide an accurate estimate of the mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We put forward a two-component model, comprised of a variable compact region and a static extended region, that can simultaneously explain the polarimetric properties observed by both the EHT (on horizon scales) and ALMA (which observes the combined emission from both components). These measurements provide critical constraints for the calibration, analysis, and interpretation of simultaneously obtained VLBI data with the EHT and GMVA.
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Dates and versions

insu-03713795 , version 1 (05-07-2022)

Licence

Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Ciriaco Goddi, Iván Martí-Vidal, Hugo Messias, Geoffrey C. Bower, Avery E. Broderick, et al.. Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021, 910, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a⟩. ⟨insu-03713795⟩
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