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The Polarized Image of a Synchrotron-emitting Ring of Gas Orbiting a Black Hole

Ramesh Narayan Daniel C. M. Palumbo Michael D. Johnson Zachary Gelles Elizabeth Himwich Dominic O. Chang Angelo Ricarte Jason Dexter Charles F. Gammie Andrew A. Chael Kazunori Akiyama Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Juan Carlos Algaba Richard Anantua Keiichi Asada Rebecca Azulay Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball Mislav Baloković John Barrett Bradford A. Benson Dan Bintley Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Wilfred Boland Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Avery E. Broderick Dominique Broguiere Thomas Bronzwaer Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Chi-Kwan Chan Shami Chatterjee Koushik Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Paul M. Chesler Ilje Cho Pierre Christian John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Yuzhu Cui Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 1 Sheperd S. Doeleman Ralph P. Eatough Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish Ed Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Roberto García Olivier Gentaz Boris Georgiev Ciriaco Goddi Roman Gold José L. Gómez Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Kazuhiro Hada Daryl Haggard Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales Svetlana Jorstad Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Tomohisa Kawashima Garrett K. Keating Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jae-Young Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Motoki Kino Jun Yi Koay Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Michael Kramer Carsten Kramer Thomas P. Krichbaum Cheng-Yu Kuo Tod R. Lauer Sang-Sung Lee Aviad Levis Yan-Rong Li Zhiyuan Li Michael Lindqvist Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin Lonsdale Ru-Sen Lu Nicholas R. Macdonald Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Sera Markoff Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Lia Medeiros Karl M. Menten Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Kotaro Moriyama Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Gibwa Musoke Alejandro Mus Mejías Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Joey Neilsen Roberto Neri Chunchong Ni Aristeidis Noutsos Michael A. Nowak Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Feryal Özel Jongho Park Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Dominic W. Pesce Vincent Piétu Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Ben Prather Jorge A. Preciado-López Dimitrios Psaltis Hung-Yi Pu Venkatessh Ramakrishnan Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Mel Rose Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L. J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez David Sánchez-Arguelles Mahito Sasada Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Karl-Friedrich Schuster Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Paul Tiede Remo P. J. Tilanus Michael Titus Kenji Toma Pablo Torne Tyler Trent Efthalia Traianou Sascha Trippe Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Maciek Wielgus George N. Wong Qingwen Wu Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Guang-Yao Zhao Shan-Shan Zhao 
Abstract : Synchrotron radiation from hot gas near a black hole results in a polarized image. The image polarization is determined by effects including the orientation of the magnetic field in the emitting region, relativistic motion of the gas, strong gravitational lensing by the black hole, and parallel transport in the curved spacetime. We explore these effects using a simple model of an axisymmetric, equatorial accretion disk around a Schwarzschild black hole. By using an approximate expression for the null geodesics derived by Beloborodov and conservation of the Walker-Penrose constant, we provide analytic estimates for the image polarization. We test this model using currently favored general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of M87*, using ring parameters given by the simulations. For a subset of these with modest Faraday effects, we show that the ring model broadly reproduces the polarimetric image morphology. Our model also predicts the polarization evolution for compact flaring regions, such as those observed from Sgr A* with GRAVITY. With suitably chosen parameters, our simple model can reproduce the EVPA pattern and relative polarized intensity in Event Horizon Telescope images of M87*. Under the physically motivated assumption that the magnetic field trails the fluid velocity, this comparison is consistent with the clockwise rotation inferred from total intensity images.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 5, 2022 - 10:12:22 AM
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Ramesh Narayan, Daniel C. M. Palumbo, Michael D. Johnson, Zachary Gelles, Elizabeth Himwich, et al.. The Polarized Image of a Synchrotron-emitting Ring of Gas Orbiting a Black Hole. The Astrophysical Journal, 2021, 912, ⟨10.3847/1538-4357/abf117⟩. ⟨insu-03713780⟩

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