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The Variability of the Black Hole Image in M87 at the Dynamical Timescale

Kaushik Satapathy Dimitrios Psaltis Feryal Özel Lia Medeiros Sean T. Dougall Chi-Kwan Chan Maciek Wielgus Ben S. Prather George N. Wong Charles F. Gammie Kazunori Akiyama Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Juan Carlos Algaba Richard Anantua Keiichi Asada Rebecca Azulay Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball Mislav Baloković John Barrett Bradford A. Benson Dan Bintley Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Wilfred Boland Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Avery E. Broderick Dominique Broguiere Thomas Bronzwaer Sandra Bustamente Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Andrew Chael Koushik Chatterjee Shami Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Ilje Cho Pierre Christian John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Yuzhu Cui Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 1 Jason Dexter Sheperd S. Doeleman Ralph P. Eatough Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish Ed Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Roberto García Olivier Gentaz Boris Georgiev Ciriaco Goddi Roman Gold Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz José L. Gómez Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Kazuhiro Hada Daryl Haggard Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales Michael D. Johnson Svetlana Jorstad Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Tomohisa Kawashima Garrett K. Keating Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jae-Young Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Motoki Kino Jun Yi Koay Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Carsten Kramer Michael Kramer Thomas P. Krichbaum Cheng-Yu Kuo Tod R. Lauer Sang-Sung Lee Aviad Levis Yan-Rong Li Zhiyuan Li Michael Lindqvist Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin Lonsdale Ru-Sen Lu Nicholas R. Macdonald Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Sera Markoff Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Karl M. Menten Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Kotaro Moriyama Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Alejandro Mus Mejías Gibwa Musoke Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Ramesh Narayan Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Joey Neilsen Roberto Neri Chunchong Ni Aristeidis Noutsos Michael A. Nowak Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Daniel C. M. Palumbo Jongho Park Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Dominic W. Pesce Vincent Piétu Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Jorge A. Preciado-López Hung-Yi Pu Venkatessh Ramakrishnan Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Mel Rose Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L. J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez David Sánchez-Arguelles Mahito Sasada Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Karl-Friedrich Schuster Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Paul Tiede Remo P. J. Tilanus Michael Titus Kenji Toma Pablo Torne Efthalia Traianou Tyler Trent Sascha Trippe Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Kaj Wiik Qingwen Wu Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Guang-Yao Zhao Shan-Shan Zhao 
Abstract : The black hole images obtained with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) are expected to be variable at the dynamical timescale near their horizons. For the black hole at the center of the M87 galaxy, this timescale (5-61 days) is comparable to the 6 day extent of the 2017 EHT observations. Closure phases along baseline triangles are robust interferometric observables that are sensitive to the expected structural changes of the images but are free of station-based atmospheric and instrumental errors. We explored the day-to-day variability in closure-phase measurements on all six linearly independent nontrivial baseline triangles that can be formed from the 2017 observations. We showed that three triangles exhibit very low day-to-day variability, with a dispersion of ~3°-5°. The only triangles that exhibit substantially higher variability (~90°-180°) are the ones with baselines that cross the visibility amplitude minima on the u-v plane, as expected from theoretical modeling. We used two sets of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to explore the dependence of the predicted variability on various black hole and accretion-flow parameters. We found that changing the magnetic field configuration, electron temperature model, or black hole spin has a marginal effect on the model consistency with the observed level of variability. On the other hand, the most discriminating image characteristic of models is the fractional width of the bright ring of emission. Models that best reproduce the observed small level of variability are characterized by thin ring-like images with structures dominated by gravitational lensing effects and thus least affected by turbulence in the accreting plasmas.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 4, 2022 - 4:47:06 PM
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Kaushik Satapathy, Dimitrios Psaltis, Feryal Özel, Lia Medeiros, Sean T. Dougall, et al.. The Variability of the Black Hole Image in M87 at the Dynamical Timescale. The Astrophysical Journal, 2022, 925, ⟨10.3847/1538-4357/ac332e⟩. ⟨insu-03713346⟩

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