First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2022

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way

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Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Uwe Bach
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Michi Bauböck
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Sandra Bustamante
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Chiara Ceccobello
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Xiaopeng Cheng
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
Nicholas S. Conroy
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John E. Conway
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James M. Cordes
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Thomas M. Crawford
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Geoffrey B. Crew
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Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
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Yuzhu Cui
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Jordy Davelaar
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Mariafelicia de Laurentis
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Roger Deane
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Jessica Dempsey
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Jason Dexter
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Vedant Dhruv
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Sheperd S. Doeleman
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Sean Dougal
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Sergio A. Dzib
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Ralph P. Eatough
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Razieh Emami
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Heino Falcke
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Joseph Farah
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Vincent L. Fish
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Ed Fomalont
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H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
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William T. Freeman
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Per Friberg
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Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
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Charles F. Gammie
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Roberto García
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Olivier Gentaz
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Boris Georgiev
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Ciriaco Goddi
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Roman Gold
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Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
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José L. Gómez
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Minfeng Gu
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Mark Gurwell
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Kazuhiro Hada
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Daryl Haggard
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Kari Haworth
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Michael H. Hecht
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Ronald Hesper
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Dirk Heumann
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Luis C. Ho
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Paul Ho
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Mareki Honma
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Chih-Wei L. Huang
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Lei Huang
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David H. Hughes
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Shiro Ikeda
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C. M. Violette Impellizzeri
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Makoto Inoue
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Sara Issaoun
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David J. James
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Buell T. Jannuzi
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Britton Jeter
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Wu Jiang
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  • Function : Author
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  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Noemi La Bella
  • Function : Author
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  • Function : Author
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  • Function : Author
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Rocco Lico
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Greg Lindahl
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Mikhail Lisakov
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Jun Liu
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Kuo Liu
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Elisabetta Liuzzo
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Wen-Ping Lo
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Andrei P. Lobanov
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Laurent Loinard
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Colin J. Lonsdale
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Ru-Sen Lu
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Jirong Mao
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Nicola Marchili
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Sera Markoff
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Satoki Matsushita
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Lynn D. Matthews
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Lia Medeiros
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Karl M. Menten
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Daniel Michalik
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Izumi Mizuno
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Yosuke Mizuno
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James M. Moran
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Kotaro Moriyama
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Monika Moscibrodzka
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Cornelia Müller
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Alejandro Mus
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Gibwa Musoke
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Ioannis Myserlis
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Andrew Nadolski
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Hiroshi Nagai
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Neil M. Nagar
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Masanori Nakamura
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Ramesh Narayan
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Gopal Narayanan
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Iniyan Natarajan
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Antonios Nathanail
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Santiago Navarro Fuentes
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Joey Neilsen
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Roberto Neri
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Chunchong Ni
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Aristeidis Noutsos
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Michael A. Nowak
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Junghwan Oh
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Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
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Gisela N. Ortiz-León
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Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Feryal Özel
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
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Georgios Filippos Paraschos
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Jongho Park
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Harriet Parsons
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
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Richard Plambeck
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Aleksandar Popstefanija
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Oliver Porth
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Felix M. Pötzl
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Ben Prather
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Jorge A. Preciado-López
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Dimitrios Psaltis
  • Function : Author
Hung-Yi Pu
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Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Ramprasad Rao
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Mark G. Rawlings
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Alexander W. Raymond
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Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Angelo Ricarte
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Bart Ripperda
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Freek Roelofs
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Alan Rogers
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Eduardo Ros
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Cristina Romero-Cañizales
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Arash Roshanineshat
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Helge Rottmann
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Alan L. Roy
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Ignacio Ruiz
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Chet Ruszczyk
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Kazi L. J. Rygl
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Salvador Sánchez
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Abstract

We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center source associated with a supermassive black hole. These observations were conducted in 2017 using a global interferometric array of eight telescopes operating at a wavelength of λ = 1.3 mm. The EHT data resolve a compact emission region with intrahour variability. A variety of imaging and modeling analyses all support an image that is dominated by a bright, thick ring with a diameter of 51.8 ± 2.3 μas (68% credible interval). The ring has modest azimuthal brightness asymmetry and a comparatively dim interior. Using a large suite of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the EHT images of Sgr A* are consistent with the expected appearance of a Kerr black hole with mass ~4 × 106 M , which is inferred to exist at this location based on previous infrared observations of individual stellar orbits, as well as maser proper-motion studies. Our model comparisons disfavor scenarios where the black hole is viewed at high inclination (i > 50°), as well as nonspinning black holes and those with retrograde accretion disks. Our results provide direct evidence for the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, and for the first time we connect the predictions from dynamical measurements of stellar orbits on scales of 103-105 gravitational radii to event-horizon-scale images and variability. Furthermore, a comparison with the EHT results for the supermassive black hole M87* shows consistency with the predictions of general relativity spanning over three orders of magnitude in central mass.
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Dates and versions

insu-03713319 , version 1 (04-07-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Juan Carlos Algaba, Richard Anantua, et al.. First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac6674⟩. ⟨insu-03713319⟩
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