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First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way

Kazunori Akiyama Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Juan Carlos Algaba Richard Anantua Keiichi Asada Rebecca Azulay Uwe Bach Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball Mislav Baloković John Barrett Michi Bauböck Bradford A. Benson Dan Bintley Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Avery E. Broderick Dominique Broguiere Thomas Bronzwaer Sandra Bustamante Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Chiara Ceccobello Andrew Chael Chi-Kwan Chan Koushik Chatterjee Shami Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Xiaopeng Cheng Ilje Cho Pierre Christian Nicholas S. Conroy John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Yuzhu Cui Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 1 Jason Dexter Vedant Dhruv Sheperd S. Doeleman Sean Dougal Sergio A. Dzib Ralph P. Eatough Razieh Emami Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish Ed Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas William T. Freeman Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Charles F. Gammie Roberto García Olivier Gentaz Boris Georgiev Ciriaco Goddi Roman Gold Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz José L. Gómez Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Kazuhiro Hada Daryl Haggard Kari Haworth Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Dirk Heumann Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda C. M. Violette Impellizzeri Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales Michael D. Johnson Svetlana Jorstad Abhishek V. Joshi Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Tomohisa Kawashima Garrett K. Keating Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jae-Young Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Motoki Kino Jun Yi Koay Prashant Kocherlakota Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Carsten Kramer Michael Kramer Thomas P. Krichbaum Cheng-Yu Kuo Noemi La Bella Tod R. Lauer Daeyoung Lee Sang-Sung Lee Po Kin Leung Aviad Levis Zhiyuan Li Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Michael Lindqvist Mikhail Lisakov Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin J. Lonsdale Ru-Sen Lu Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Sera Markoff Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Lia Medeiros Karl M. Menten Daniel Michalik Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Kotaro Moriyama Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Alejandro Mus Gibwa Musoke Ioannis Myserlis Andrew Nadolski Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Ramesh Narayan Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Santiago Navarro Fuentes Joey Neilsen Roberto Neri Chunchong Ni Aristeidis Noutsos Michael A. Nowak Junghwan Oh Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Feryal Özel Daniel C. M. Palumbo Georgios Filippos Paraschos Jongho Park Harriet Parsons Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Dominic W. Pesce Vincent Piétu Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Ben Prather Jorge A. Preciado-López Dimitrios Psaltis Hung-Yi Pu Venkatessh Ramakrishnan Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Angelo Ricarte Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Cristina Romero-Cañizales Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Ignacio Ruiz Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L. J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez David Sánchez-Argüelles Miguel Sánchez-Portal Mahito Sasada Kaushik Satapathy Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Jonathan Schonfeld Karl-Friedrich Schuster Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo Kamal Souccar He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Paul Tiede Remo P. J. Tilanus Michael Titus Pablo Torne Efthalia Traianou Tyler Trent Sascha Trippe Matthew Turk Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jesse Vos Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Maciek Wielgus Kaj Wiik Gunther Witzel Michael F. Wondrak George N. Wong Qingwen Wu Paul Yamaguchi Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Shuo Zhang Guang-Yao Zhao Shan-Shan Zhao Claudio Agurto Alexander Allardi Rodrigo Amestica Juan Pablo Araneda Oriel Arriagada Jennie L. Berghuis Alessandra Bertarini Ryan Berthold Jay Blanchard Ken Brown Mauricio Cárdenas Michael Cantzler Patricio Caro Edgar Castillo-Domínguez Tin Lok Chan Chih-Cheng Chang Dominic O. Chang Shu-Hao Chang Song-Chu Chang Chung-Chen Chen Ryan Chilson Tim C. Chuter Miroslaw Ciechanowicz Edgar Colin-Beltran Iain M. Coulson Joseph Crowley Nathalie Degenaar Sven Dornbusch Carlos A. Durán Wendeline B. Everett Aaron Faber Karl Forster Miriam M. Fuchs David M. Gale Gertie Geertsema Edouard González Dave Graham Frédéric Gueth Nils W. Halverson Chih-Chiang Han Kuo-Chang Han Yutaka Hasegawa José Luis Hernández-Rebollar Cristian Herrera Ruben Herrero-Illana Stefan Heyminck Akihiko Hirota James Hoge Shelbi R. Hostler Schimpf Ryan E. Howie Yau-De Huang Homin Jiang Hao Jinchi David John Kimihiro Kimura Thomas Klein Derek Kubo John Kuroda Caleb Kwon Richard Lacasse Robert Laing Erik M. Leitch Chao-Te Li Ching-Tang Liu Kuan-Yu Liu Lupin C. -C. Lin Li-Ming Lu Felipe Mac-Auliffe Pierre Martin-Cocher Callie Matulonis John K. Maute Hugo Messias Zheng Meyer-Zhao Alfredo Montaña Francisco Montenegro-Montes William Montgomerie Marcos Emir Moreno Nolasco Dirk Muders Hiroaki Nishioka Timothy J. Norton George Nystrom Hideo Ogawa Rodrigo Olivares Peter Oshiro Juan Pablo Pérez-Beaupuits Rodrigo Parra Neil M. Phillips Michael Poirier Nicolas Pradel Richard Qiu Philippe A. Raffin Alexandra S. Rahlin Jorge Ramírez Sean Ressler Mark Reynolds Iván Rodríguez-Montoya Alejandro F. Saez-Madain Jorge Santana Paul Shaw Leslie E. Shirkey Kevin M. Silva William Snow Don Sousa T. K. Sridharan William Stahm Anthony A. Stark John Test Karl Torstensson Paulina Venegas Craig Walther Ta-Shun Wei Chris White Gundolf Wieching Rudy Wijnands Jan G. A. Wouterloot Chen-Yu Yu Wei Yu Milagros Zeballos 
Abstract : We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center source associated with a supermassive black hole. These observations were conducted in 2017 using a global interferometric array of eight telescopes operating at a wavelength of λ = 1.3 mm. The EHT data resolve a compact emission region with intrahour variability. A variety of imaging and modeling analyses all support an image that is dominated by a bright, thick ring with a diameter of 51.8 ± 2.3 μas (68% credible interval). The ring has modest azimuthal brightness asymmetry and a comparatively dim interior. Using a large suite of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the EHT images of Sgr A* are consistent with the expected appearance of a Kerr black hole with mass ~4 × 106 M , which is inferred to exist at this location based on previous infrared observations of individual stellar orbits, as well as maser proper-motion studies. Our model comparisons disfavor scenarios where the black hole is viewed at high inclination (i > 50°), as well as nonspinning black holes and those with retrograde accretion disks. Our results provide direct evidence for the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, and for the first time we connect the predictions from dynamical measurements of stellar orbits on scales of 103-105 gravitational radii to event-horizon-scale images and variability. Furthermore, a comparison with the EHT results for the supermassive black hole M87* shows consistency with the predictions of general relativity spanning over three orders of magnitude in central mass.
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https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-03713319
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Submitted on : Monday, July 4, 2022 - 4:19:08 PM
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Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Juan Carlos Algaba, Richard Anantua, et al.. First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac6674⟩. ⟨insu-03713319⟩

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