First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. EHT and Multiwavelength Observations, Data Processing, and Calibration - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2022

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. EHT and Multiwavelength Observations, Data Processing, and Calibration

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Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Uwe Bach
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Michi Bauböck
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Sandra Bustamante
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Chiara Ceccobello
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Xiaopeng Cheng
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
Nicholas S. Conroy
  • Function : Author
John E. Conway
  • Function : Author
James M. Cordes
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Thomas M. Crawford
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey B. Crew
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
  • Function : Author
Yuzhu Cui
  • Function : Author
Jordy Davelaar
  • Function : Author
Mariafelicia de Laurentis
  • Function : Author
Roger Deane
  • Function : Author
Jessica Dempsey
  • Function : Author
Jason Dexter
  • Function : Author
Vedant Dhruv
  • Function : Author
Sheperd S. Doeleman
  • Function : Author
Sean Dougal
  • Function : Author
Sergio A. Dzib
  • Function : Author
Ralph P. Eatough
  • Function : Author
Razieh Emami
  • Function : Author
Heino Falcke
  • Function : Author
Joseph Farah
  • Function : Author
Vincent L. Fish
  • Function : Author
Ed Fomalont
  • Function : Author
H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
  • Function : Author
William T. Freeman
  • Function : Author
Per Friberg
  • Function : Author
Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
  • Function : Author
Charles F. Gammie
  • Function : Author
Roberto García
  • Function : Author
Olivier Gentaz
  • Function : Author
Boris Georgiev
  • Function : Author
Ciriaco Goddi
  • Function : Author
Roman Gold
  • Function : Author
Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
  • Function : Author
José L. Gómez
  • Function : Author
Minfeng Gu
  • Function : Author
Mark Gurwell
  • Function : Author
Kazuhiro Hada
  • Function : Author
Daryl Haggard
  • Function : Author
Kari Haworth
  • Function : Author
Michael H. Hecht
  • Function : Author
Ronald Hesper
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Dirk Heumann
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Luis C. Ho
  • Function : Author
Paul Ho
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Mareki Honma
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Chih-Wei L. Huang
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Lei Huang
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David H. Hughes
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Shiro Ikeda
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C. M. Violette Impellizzeri
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Makoto Inoue
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Sara Issaoun
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David J. James
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Buell T. Jannuzi
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Michael Janssen
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Britton Jeter
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Wu Jiang
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Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales
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Michael D. Johnson
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Svetlana Jorstad
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Abhishek V. Joshi
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Taehyun Jung
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Mansour Karami
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Karuppusamy
  • Function : Author
Tomohisa Kawashima
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Garrett K. Keating
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Mark Kettenis
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Dong-Jin Kim
  • Function : Author
Jae-Young Kim
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Jongsoo Kim
  • Function : Author
Junhan Kim
  • Function : Author
Motoki Kino
  • Function : Author
Jun Yi Koay
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Prashant Kocherlakota
  • Function : Author
Yutaro Kofuji
  • Function : Author
Patrick M. Koch
  • Function : Author
Shoko Koyama
  • Function : Author
Carsten Kramer
  • Function : Author
Michael Kramer
  • Function : Author
Thomas P. Krichbaum
  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Noemi La Bella
  • Function : Author
Tod R. Lauer
  • Function : Author
Daeyoung Lee
  • Function : Author
Sang-Sung Lee
  • Function : Author
Po Kin Leung
  • Function : Author
Aviad Levis
  • Function : Author
Zhiyuan Li
  • Function : Author
Rocco Lico
  • Function : Author
Greg Lindahl
  • Function : Author
Michael Lindqvist
  • Function : Author
Mikhail Lisakov
  • Function : Author
Jun Liu
  • Function : Author
Kuo Liu
  • Function : Author
Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Function : Author
Wen-Ping Lo
  • Function : Author
Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Function : Author
Laurent Loinard
  • Function : Author
Colin J. Lonsdale
  • Function : Author
Ru-Sen Lu
  • Function : Author
Jirong Mao
  • Function : Author
Nicola Marchili
  • Function : Author
Sera Markoff
  • Function : Author
Daniel P. Marrone
  • Function : Author
Alan P. Marscher
  • Function : Author
Iván Martí-Vidal
  • Function : Author
Satoki Matsushita
  • Function : Author
Lynn D. Matthews
  • Function : Author
Lia Medeiros
  • Function : Author
Karl M. Menten
  • Function : Author
Daniel Michalik
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Izumi Mizuno
  • Function : Author
Yosuke Mizuno
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James M. Moran
  • Function : Author
Kotaro Moriyama
  • Function : Author
Monika Moscibrodzka
  • Function : Author
Cornelia Müller
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Mus
  • Function : Author
Gibwa Musoke
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Ioannis Myserlis
  • Function : Author
Andrew Nadolski
  • Function : Author
Hiroshi Nagai
  • Function : Author
Neil M. Nagar
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Masanori Nakamura
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Narayan
  • Function : Author
Gopal Narayanan
  • Function : Author
Iniyan Natarajan
  • Function : Author
Antonios Nathanail
  • Function : Author
Santiago Navarro Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Joey Neilsen
  • Function : Author
Roberto Neri
  • Function : Author
Chunchong Ni
  • Function : Author
Aristeidis Noutsos
  • Function : Author
Michael A. Nowak
  • Function : Author
Junghwan Oh
  • Function : Author
Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
  • Function : Author
Gisela N. Ortiz-León
  • Function : Author
Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Feryal Özel
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
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Georgios Filippos Paraschos
  • Function : Author
Jongho Park
  • Function : Author
Harriet Parsons
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
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Richard Plambeck
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Aleksandar Popstefanija
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Oliver Porth
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Felix M. Pötzl
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Ben Prather
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Jorge A. Preciado-López
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Dimitrios Psaltis
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Hung-Yi Pu
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Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
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Ramprasad Rao
  • Function : Author
Mark G. Rawlings
  • Function : Author
Alexander W. Raymond
  • Function : Author
Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Angelo Ricarte
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Bart Ripperda
  • Function : Author
Freek Roelofs
  • Function : Author
Alan Rogers
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Ros
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Cristina Romero-Cañizales
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Arash Roshanineshat
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Helge Rottmann
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Alan L. Roy
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Ignacio Ruiz
  • Function : Author
Chet Ruszczyk
  • Function : Author
Kazi L. J. Rygl
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Salvador Sánchez
  • Function : Author
David Sánchez-Argüelles
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Miguel Sánchez-Portal
  • Function : Author
Mahito Sasada
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Kaushik Satapathy
  • Function : Author
Tuomas Savolainen
  • Function : Author
F. Peter Schloerb
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Schonfeld
  • Function : Author
Karl-Friedrich Schuster
  • Function : Author
Lijing Shao
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Zhiqiang Shen
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Des Small
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Bong Won Sohn
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Jason Soohoo
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Kamal Souccar
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He Sun
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Fumie Tazaki
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Alexandra J. Tetarenko
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Paul Tiede
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Remo P. J. Tilanus
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Michael Titus
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Pablo Torne
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Efthalia Traianou
  • Function : Author
Tyler Trent
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Sascha Trippe
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Matthew Turk
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Ilse van Bemmel
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Huib Jan van Langevelde
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Daniel R. van Rossum
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Jesse Vos
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Jan Wagner
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Derek Ward-Thompson
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John Wardle
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Jonathan Weintroub
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Norbert Wex
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Robert Wharton
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Maciek Wielgus
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Kaj Wiik
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Gunther Witzel
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Michael F. Wondrak
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George N. Wong
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Qingwen Wu
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Paul Yamaguchi
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Doosoo Yoon
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André Young
  • Function : Author
Ken Young
  • Function : Author
Ziri Younsi
  • Function : Author
Feng Yuan
  • Function : Author
Ye-Fei Yuan
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J. Anton Zensus
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Shuo Zhang
  • Function : Author
Guang-Yao Zhao
  • Function : Author
Shan-Shan Zhao
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Claudio Agurto
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Juan Pablo Araneda
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Oriel Arriagada
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Alessandra Bertarini
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Ryan Berthold
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Jay Blanchard
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Ken Brown
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Mauricio Cárdenas
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Michael Cantzler
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Patricio Caro
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Tim C. Chuter
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Miroslaw Ciechanowicz
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Iain M. Coulson
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Joseph Crowley
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Nathalie Degenaar
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Sven Dornbusch
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Carlos A. Durán
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Karl Forster
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Gertie Geertsema
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Edouard González
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Dave Graham
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Frédéric Gueth
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Chih-Chiang Han
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Cristian Herrera
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Ruben Herrero-Illana
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Stefan Heyminck
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James Hoge
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Yau-De Huang
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Homin Jiang
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David John
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Thomas Klein
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Derek Kubo
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John Kuroda
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Caleb Kwon
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Robert Laing
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Ching-Tang Liu
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Kuan-Yu Liu
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Felipe Mac-Auliffe
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Pierre Martin-Cocher
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Callie Matulonis
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Hugo Messias
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Zheng Meyer-Zhao
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Francisco Montenegro-Montes
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William Montgomerie
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Dirk Muders
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Hiroaki Nishioka
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Timothy J. Norton
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Rodrigo Olivares
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Juan Pablo Pérez-Beaupuits
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Rodrigo Parra
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Michael Poirier
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Nicolas Pradel
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Philippe A. Raffin
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Jorge Ramírez
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Mark Reynolds
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Alejandro F. Saez-Madain
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Jorge Santana
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Kevin M. Silva
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Don Sousa
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William Stahm
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Karl Torstensson
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Paulina Venegas
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Craig Walther
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Gundolf Wieching
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Abstract

We present Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm measurements of the radio source located at the position of the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), collected during the 2017 April 5-11 campaign. The observations were carried out with eight facilities at six locations across the globe. Novel calibration methods are employed to account for Sgr A*'s flux variability. The majority of the 1.3 mm emission arises from horizon scales, where intrinsic structural source variability is detected on timescales of minutes to hours. The effects of interstellar scattering on the image and its variability are found to be subdominant to intrinsic source structure. The calibrated visibility amplitudes, particularly the locations of the visibility minima, are broadly consistent with a blurred ring with a diameter of ~50 μas, as determined in later works in this series. Contemporaneous multiwavelength monitoring of Sgr A* was performed at 22, 43, and 86 GHz and at near-infrared and X-ray wavelengths. Several X-ray flares from Sgr A* are detected by Chandra, one at low significance jointly with Swift on 2017 April 7 and the other at higher significance jointly with NuSTAR on 2017 April 11. The brighter April 11 flare is not observed simultaneously by the EHT but is followed by a significant increase in millimeter flux variability immediately after the X-ray outburst, indicating a likely connection in the emission physics near the event horizon. We compare Sgr A*'s broadband flux during the EHT campaign to its historical spectral energy distribution and find that both the quiescent emission and flare emission are consistent with its long-term behavior.
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Dates and versions

insu-03713316 , version 1 (04-07-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Juan Carlos Algaba, Richard Anantua, et al.. First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. EHT and Multiwavelength Observations, Data Processing, and Calibration. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac6675⟩. ⟨insu-03713316⟩
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