First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2022

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole

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Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Uwe Bach
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Michi Bauböck
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Sandra Bustamante
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Chiara Ceccobello
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Xiaopeng Cheng
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
Nicholas S. Conroy
  • Function : Author
John E. Conway
  • Function : Author
James M. Cordes
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Crawford
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey B. Crew
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
  • Function : Author
Yuzhu Cui
  • Function : Author
Jordy Davelaar
  • Function : Author
Mariafelicia de Laurentis
  • Function : Author
Roger Deane
  • Function : Author
Jessica Dempsey
  • Function : Author
Jason Dexter
  • Function : Author
Vedant Dhruv
  • Function : Author
Sheperd S. Doeleman
  • Function : Author
Sean Dougal
  • Function : Author
Sergio A. Dzib
  • Function : Author
Ralph P. Eatough
  • Function : Author
Razieh Emami
  • Function : Author
Heino Falcke
  • Function : Author
Joseph Farah
  • Function : Author
Vincent L. Fish
  • Function : Author
Ed Fomalont
  • Function : Author
H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
  • Function : Author
William T. Freeman
  • Function : Author
Per Friberg
  • Function : Author
Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
  • Function : Author
Charles F. Gammie
  • Function : Author
Roberto García
  • Function : Author
Olivier Gentaz
  • Function : Author
Boris Georgiev
  • Function : Author
Ciriaco Goddi
  • Function : Author
Roman Gold
  • Function : Author
Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
  • Function : Author
José L. Gómez
  • Function : Author
Minfeng Gu
  • Function : Author
Mark Gurwell
  • Function : Author
Kazuhiro Hada
  • Function : Author
Daryl Haggard
  • Function : Author
Kari Haworth
  • Function : Author
Michael H. Hecht
  • Function : Author
Ronald Hesper
  • Function : Author
Dirk Heumann
  • Function : Author
Luis C. Ho
  • Function : Author
Paul Ho
  • Function : Author
Mareki Honma
  • Function : Author
Chih-Wei L. Huang
  • Function : Author
Lei Huang
  • Function : Author
David H. Hughes
  • Function : Author
Shiro Ikeda
  • Function : Author
C. M. Violette Impellizzeri
  • Function : Author
Makoto Inoue
  • Function : Author
Sara Issaoun
  • Function : Author
David J. James
  • Function : Author
Buell T. Jannuzi
  • Function : Author
Michael Janssen
  • Function : Author
Britton Jeter
  • Function : Author
Wu Jiang
  • Function : Author
Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales
  • Function : Author
Michael D. Johnson
  • Function : Author
Svetlana Jorstad
  • Function : Author
Abhishek V. Joshi
  • Function : Author
Taehyun Jung
  • Function : Author
Mansour Karami
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Karuppusamy
  • Function : Author
Tomohisa Kawashima
  • Function : Author
Garrett K. Keating
  • Function : Author
Mark Kettenis
  • Function : Author
Dong-Jin Kim
  • Function : Author
Jae-Young Kim
  • Function : Author
Jongsoo Kim
  • Function : Author
Junhan Kim
  • Function : Author
Motoki Kino
  • Function : Author
Jun Yi Koay
  • Function : Author
Prashant Kocherlakota
  • Function : Author
Yutaro Kofuji
  • Function : Author
Patrick M. Koch
  • Function : Author
Shoko Koyama
  • Function : Author
Carsten Kramer
  • Function : Author
Michael Kramer
  • Function : Author
Thomas P. Krichbaum
  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Noemi La Bella
  • Function : Author
Tod R. Lauer
  • Function : Author
Daeyoung Lee
  • Function : Author
Sang-Sung Lee
  • Function : Author
Po Kin Leung
  • Function : Author
Aviad Levis
  • Function : Author
Zhiyuan Li
  • Function : Author
Rocco Lico
  • Function : Author
Greg Lindahl
  • Function : Author
Michael Lindqvist
  • Function : Author
Mikhail Lisakov
  • Function : Author
Jun Liu
  • Function : Author
Kuo Liu
  • Function : Author
Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Function : Author
Wen-Ping Lo
  • Function : Author
Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Function : Author
Laurent Loinard
  • Function : Author
Colin J. Lonsdale
  • Function : Author
Ru-Sen Lu
  • Function : Author
Jirong Mao
  • Function : Author
Nicola Marchili
  • Function : Author
Sera Markoff
  • Function : Author
Daniel P. Marrone
  • Function : Author
Alan P. Marscher
  • Function : Author
Iván Martí-Vidal
  • Function : Author
Satoki Matsushita
  • Function : Author
Lynn D. Matthews
  • Function : Author
Lia Medeiros
  • Function : Author
Karl M. Menten
  • Function : Author
Daniel Michalik
  • Function : Author
Izumi Mizuno
  • Function : Author
Yosuke Mizuno
  • Function : Author
James M. Moran
  • Function : Author
Kotaro Moriyama
  • Function : Author
Monika Moscibrodzka
  • Function : Author
Cornelia Müller
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Mus
  • Function : Author
Gibwa Musoke
  • Function : Author
Ioannis Myserlis
  • Function : Author
Andrew Nadolski
  • Function : Author
Hiroshi Nagai
  • Function : Author
Neil M. Nagar
  • Function : Author
Masanori Nakamura
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Narayan
  • Function : Author
Gopal Narayanan
  • Function : Author
Iniyan Natarajan
  • Function : Author
Antonios Nathanail
  • Function : Author
Santiago Navarro Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Joey Neilsen
  • Function : Author
Roberto Neri
  • Function : Author
Chunchong Ni
  • Function : Author
Aristeidis Noutsos
  • Function : Author
Michael A. Nowak
  • Function : Author
Junghwan Oh
  • Function : Author
Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
  • Function : Author
Gisela N. Ortiz-León
  • Function : Author
Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Feryal Özel
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
  • Function : Author
Georgios Filippos Paraschos
  • Function : Author
Jongho Park
  • Function : Author
Harriet Parsons
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
  • Function : Author
Richard Plambeck
  • Function : Author
Aleksandar Popstefanija
  • Function : Author
Oliver Porth
  • Function : Author
Felix M. Pötzl
  • Function : Author
Ben Prather
  • Function : Author
Jorge A. Preciado-López
  • Function : Author
Dimitrios Psaltis
  • Function : Author
Hung-Yi Pu
  • Function : Author
Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Ramprasad Rao
  • Function : Author
Mark G. Rawlings
  • Function : Author
Alexander W. Raymond
  • Function : Author
Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Angelo Ricarte
  • Function : Author
Bart Ripperda
  • Function : Author
Freek Roelofs
  • Function : Author
Alan Rogers
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Ros
  • Function : Author
Cristina Romero-Cañizales
  • Function : Author
Arash Roshanineshat
  • Function : Author
Helge Rottmann
  • Function : Author
Alan L. Roy
  • Function : Author
Ignacio Ruiz
  • Function : Author
Chet Ruszczyk
  • Function : Author
Kazi L. J. Rygl
  • Function : Author
Salvador Sánchez
  • Function : Author
David Sánchez-Argüelles
  • Function : Author
Miguel Sánchez-Portal
  • Function : Author
Mahito Sasada
  • Function : Author
Kaushik Satapathy
  • Function : Author
Tuomas Savolainen
  • Function : Author
F. Peter Schloerb
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Schonfeld
  • Function : Author
Karl-Friedrich Schuster
  • Function : Author
Lijing Shao
  • Function : Author
Zhiqiang Shen
  • Function : Author
Des Small
  • Function : Author
Bong Won Sohn
  • Function : Author
Jason Soohoo
  • Function : Author
Kamal Souccar
  • Function : Author
He Sun
  • Function : Author
Fumie Tazaki
  • Function : Author
Alexandra J. Tetarenko
  • Function : Author
Paul Tiede
  • Function : Author
Remo P. J. Tilanus
  • Function : Author
Michael Titus
  • Function : Author
Pablo Torne
  • Function : Author
Efthalia Traianou
  • Function : Author
Tyler Trent
  • Function : Author
Sascha Trippe
  • Function : Author
Matthew Turk
  • Function : Author
Ilse van Bemmel
  • Function : Author
Huib Jan van Langevelde
  • Function : Author
Daniel R. van Rossum
  • Function : Author
Jesse Vos
  • Function : Author
Jan Wagner
  • Function : Author
Derek Ward-Thompson
  • Function : Author
John Wardle
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Weintroub
  • Function : Author
Norbert Wex
  • Function : Author
Robert Wharton
  • Function : Author
Maciek Wielgus
  • Function : Author
Kaj Wiik
  • Function : Author
Gunther Witzel
  • Function : Author
Michael F. Wondrak
  • Function : Author
George N. Wong
  • Function : Author
Qingwen Wu
  • Function : Author
Paul Yamaguchi
  • Function : Author
Doosoo Yoon
  • Function : Author
André Young
  • Function : Author
Ken Young
  • Function : Author
Ziri Younsi
  • Function : Author
Feng Yuan
  • Function : Author
Ye-Fei Yuan
  • Function : Author
J. Anton Zensus
  • Function : Author
Shuo Zhang
  • Function : Author
Guang-Yao Zhao
  • Function : Author
Shan-Shan Zhao
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present the first event-horizon-scale images and spatiotemporal analysis of Sgr A* taken with the Event Horizon Telescope in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. Imaging of Sgr A* has been conducted through surveys over a wide range of imaging assumptions using the classical CLEAN algorithm, regularized maximum likelihood methods, and a Bayesian posterior sampling method. Different prescriptions have been used to account for scattering effects by the interstellar medium toward the Galactic center. Mitigation of the rapid intraday variability that characterizes Sgr A* has been carried out through the addition of a "variability noise budget" in the observed visibilities, facilitating the reconstruction of static full-track images. Our static reconstructions of Sgr A* can be clustered into four representative morphologies that correspond to ring images with three different azimuthal brightness distributions and a small cluster that contains diverse nonring morphologies. Based on our extensive analysis of the effects of sparse (u, v)-coverage, source variability, and interstellar scattering, as well as studies of simulated visibility data, we conclude that the Event Horizon Telescope Sgr A* data show compelling evidence for an image that is dominated by a bright ring of emission with a ring diameter of ~50 μas, consistent with the expected "shadow" of a 4 × 106 M black hole in the Galactic center located at a distance of 8 kpc.

Dates and versions

insu-03713315 , version 1 (04-07-2022)

Identifiers

Cite

Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Juan Carlos Algaba, Richard Anantua, et al.. First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac6429⟩. ⟨insu-03713315⟩
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