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First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Testing Astrophysical Models of the Galactic Center Black Hole

Kazunori Akiyama Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Juan Carlos Algaba Richard Anantua Keiichi Asada Rebecca Azulay Uwe Bach Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball Mislav Baloković John Barrett Michi Bauböck Bradford A. Benson Dan Bintley Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Avery E. Broderick Dominique Broguiere Thomas Bronzwaer Sandra Bustamante Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Chiara Ceccobello Andrew Chael Chi-Kwan Chan Koushik Chatterjee Shami Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Xiaopeng Cheng Ilje Cho Pierre Christian Nicholas S. Conroy John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Yuzhu Cui Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 1 Jason Dexter Vedant Dhruv Sheperd S. Doeleman Sean Dougal Sergio A. Dzib Ralph P. Eatough Razieh Emami Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish Ed Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas William T. Freeman Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Charles F. Gammie Roberto García Olivier Gentaz Boris Georgiev Ciriaco Goddi Roman Gold Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz José L. Gómez Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Kazuhiro Hada Daryl Haggard Kari Haworth Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Dirk Heumann Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda C. M. Violette Impellizzeri Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales Michael D. Johnson Svetlana Jorstad Abhishek V. Joshi Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Tomohisa Kawashima Garrett K. Keating Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jae-Young Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Motoki Kino Jun Yi Koay Prashant Kocherlakota Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Carsten Kramer Michael Kramer Thomas P. Krichbaum Cheng-Yu Kuo Noemi La Bella Tod R. Lauer Daeyoung Lee Sang-Sung Lee Po Kin Leung Aviad Levis Zhiyuan Li Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Michael Lindqvist Mikhail Lisakov Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin J. Lonsdale Ru-Sen Lu Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Sera Markoff Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Lia Medeiros Karl M. Menten Daniel Michalik Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Kotaro Moriyama Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Alejandro Mus Gibwa Musoke Ioannis Myserlis Andrew Nadolski Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Ramesh Narayan Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Santiago Navarro Fuentes Joey Neilsen Roberto Neri Chunchong Ni Aristeidis Noutsos Michael A. Nowak Junghwan Oh Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Feryal Özel Daniel C. M. Palumbo Georgios Filippos Paraschos Jongho Park Harriet Parsons Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Dominic W. Pesce Vincent Piétu Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Ben Prather Jorge A. Preciado-López Dimitrios Psaltis Hung-Yi Pu Venkatessh Ramakrishnan Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Angelo Ricarte Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Cristina Romero-Cañizales Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Ignacio Ruiz Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L. J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez David Sánchez-Argüelles Miguel Sánchez-Portal Mahito Sasada Kaushik Satapathy Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Jonathan Schonfeld Karl-Friedrich Schuster Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo Kamal Souccar He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Paul Tiede Remo P. J. Tilanus Michael Titus Pablo Torne Efthalia Traianou Tyler Trent Sascha Trippe Matthew Turk Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jesse Vos Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Maciek Wielgus Kaj Wiik Gunther Witzel Michael F. Wondrak George N. Wong Qingwen Wu Paul Yamaguchi Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Shuo Zhang Guang-Yao Zhao Shan-Shan Zhao Tin Lok Chan Richard Qiu Sean Ressler Chris White 
Abstract : In this paper we provide a first physical interpretation for the Event Horizon Telescope's (EHT) 2017 observations of Sgr A*. Our main approach is to compare resolved EHT data at 230 GHz and unresolved non-EHT observations from radio to X-ray wavelengths to predictions from a library of models based on time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations, including aligned, tilted, and stellar-wind-fed simulations; radiative transfer is performed assuming both thermal and nonthermal electron distribution functions. We test the models against 11 constraints drawn from EHT 230 GHz data and observations at 86 GHz, 2.2 μm, and in the X-ray. All models fail at least one constraint. Light-curve variability provides a particularly severe constraint, failing nearly all strongly magnetized (magnetically arrested disk (MAD)) models and a large fraction of weakly magnetized models. A number of models fail only the variability constraints. We identify a promising cluster of these models, which are MAD and have inclination i ≤ 30°. They have accretion rate (5.2-9.5) × 10-9 M yr-1, bolometric luminosity (6.8-9.2) × 1035 erg s-1, and outflow power (1.3-4.8) × 1038 erg s-1. We also find that all models with i ≥ 70° fail at least two constraints, as do all models with equal ion and electron temperature; exploratory, nonthermal model sets tend to have higher 2.2 μm flux density; and the population of cold electrons is limited by X-ray constraints due to the risk of bremsstrahlung overproduction. Finally, we discuss physical and numerical limitations of the models, highlighting the possible importance of kinetic effects and duration of the simulations.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 4, 2022 - 4:11:56 PM
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Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Juan Carlos Algaba, Richard Anantua, et al.. First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Testing Astrophysical Models of the Galactic Center Black Hole. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac6672⟩. ⟨insu-03713313⟩

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