Millimeter Light Curves of Sagittarius A* Observed during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2022

Millimeter Light Curves of Sagittarius A* Observed during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (1) , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
1
Maciek Wielgus
  • Function : Author
Nicola Marchili
  • Function : Author
Iván Martí-Vidal
  • Function : Author
Garrett K. Keating
  • Function : Author
Venkatessh Ramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Paul Tiede
  • Function : Author
Ed Fomalont
  • Function : Author
Sara Issaoun
  • Function : Author
Joey Neilsen
  • Function : Author
Michael A. Nowak
  • Function : Author
Lindy Blackburn
  • Function : Author
Charles F. Gammie
  • Function : Author
Ciriaco Goddi
  • Function : Author
Daryl Haggard
  • Function : Author
Daeyoung Lee
  • Function : Author
Monika Moscibrodzka
  • Function : Author
Alexandra J. Tetarenko
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey C. Bower
  • Function : Author
Chi-Kwan Chan
  • Function : Author
Koushik Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Paul M. Chesler
  • Function : Author
Jason Dexter
  • Function : Author
Sheperd S. Doeleman
  • Function : Author
Boris Georgiev
  • Function : Author
Mark Gurwell
  • Function : Author
Michael D. Johnson
  • Function : Author
Daniel P. Marrone
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Mus
  • Function : Author
Dimitrios Psaltis
  • Function : Author
Bart Ripperda
  • Function : Author
Gunther Witzel
  • Function : Author
Kazunori Akiyama
  • Function : Author
Antxon Alberdi
  • Function : Author
Walter Alef
  • Function : Author
Juan Carlos Algaba
  • Function : Author
Richard Anantua
  • Function : Author
Keiichi Asada
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Azulay
  • Function : Author
Uwe Bach
  • Function : Author
Anne-Kathrin Baczko
  • Function : Author
David Ball
  • Function : Author
Mislav Baloković
  • Function : Author
John Barrett
  • Function : Author
Michi Bauböck
  • Function : Author
Bradford A. Benson
  • Function : Author
Dan Bintley
  • Function : Author
Raymond Blundell
  • Function : Author
Wilfred Boland
  • Function : Author
Katherine L. Bouman
  • Function : Author
Hope Boyce
  • Function : Author
Michael Bremer
  • Function : Author
Christiaan D. Brinkerink
  • Function : Author
Roger Brissenden
  • Function : Author
Silke Britzen
  • Function : Author
Avery E. Broderick
  • Function : Author
Dominique Broguiere
  • Function : Author
Thomas Bronzwaer
  • Function : Author
Sandra Bustamante
  • Function : Author
Do-Young Byun
  • Function : Author
John E. Carlstrom
  • Function : Author
Chiara Ceccobello
  • Function : Author
Andrew Chael
  • Function : Author
Shami Chatterjee
  • Function : Author
Ming-Tang Chen
  • Function : Author
Yongjun Chen
  • Function : Author
Ilje Cho
  • Function : Author
Pierre Christian
  • Function : Author
Nicholas S. Conroy
  • Function : Author
John E. Conway
  • Function : Author
James M. Cordes
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Crawford
  • Function : Author
Geoffrey B. Crew
  • Function : Author
Alejandro Cruz-Osorio
  • Function : Author
Yuzhu Cui
  • Function : Author
Jordy Davelaar
  • Function : Author
Mariafelicia de Laurentis
  • Function : Author
Roger Deane
  • Function : Author
Jessica Dempsey
  • Function : Author
Vedant Dhruv
  • Function : Author
Sergio A. Dzib
  • Function : Author
Ralph P. Eatough
  • Function : Author
Razieh Emami
  • Function : Author
Heino Falcke
  • Function : Author
Joseph Farah
  • Function : Author
Vincent L. Fish
  • Function : Author
H. Alyson Ford
  • Function : Author
Raquel Fraga-Encinas
  • Function : Author
William T. Freeman
  • Function : Author
Per Friberg
  • Function : Author
Christian M. Fromm
  • Function : Author
Antonio Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Peter Galison
  • Function : Author
Roberto García
  • Function : Author
Olivier Gentaz
  • Function : Author
Roman Gold
  • Function : Author
Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz
  • Function : Author
José L. Gómez
  • Function : Author
Minfeng Gu
  • Function : Author
Kazuhiro Hada
  • Function : Author
Kari Haworth
  • Function : Author
Michael H. Hecht
  • Function : Author
Ronald Hesper
  • Function : Author
Luis C. Ho
  • Function : Author
Paul Ho
  • Function : Author
Mareki Honma
  • Function : Author
Chih-Wei L. Huang
  • Function : Author
Lei Huang
  • Function : Author
David H. Hughes
  • Function : Author
Shiro Ikeda
  • Function : Author
C. M. Violette Impellizzeri
  • Function : Author
Makoto Inoue
  • Function : Author
David J. James
  • Function : Author
Buell T. Jannuzi
  • Function : Author
Michael Janssen
  • Function : Author
Britton Jeter
  • Function : Author
Wu Jiang
  • Function : Author
Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales
  • Function : Author
Svetlana Jorstad
  • Function : Author
Abhishek V. Joshi
  • Function : Author
Taehyun Jung
  • Function : Author
Mansour Karami
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Karuppusamy
  • Function : Author
Tomohisa Kawashima
  • Function : Author
Mark Kettenis
  • Function : Author
Dong-Jin Kim
  • Function : Author
Jae-Young Kim
  • Function : Author
Jongsoo Kim
  • Function : Author
Junhan Kim
  • Function : Author
Motoki Kino
  • Function : Author
Jun Yi Koay
  • Function : Author
Prashant Kocherlakota
  • Function : Author
Yutaro Kofuji
  • Function : Author
Patrick M. Koch
  • Function : Author
Shoko Koyama
  • Function : Author
Carsten Kramer
  • Function : Author
Michael Kramer
  • Function : Author
Thomas P. Krichbaum
  • Function : Author
Cheng-Yu Kuo
  • Function : Author
Noemi La Bella
  • Function : Author
Tod R. Lauer
  • Function : Author
Sang-Sung Lee
  • Function : Author
Po Kin Leung
  • Function : Author
Aviad Levis
  • Function : Author
Zhiyuan Li
  • Function : Author
Rocco Lico
  • Function : Author
Greg Lindahl
  • Function : Author
Michael Lindqvist
  • Function : Author
Mikhail Lisakov
  • Function : Author
Jun Liu
  • Function : Author
Kuo Liu
  • Function : Author
Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Function : Author
Wen-Ping Lo
  • Function : Author
Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Function : Author
Laurent Loinard
  • Function : Author
Colin Lonsdale
  • Function : Author
Ru-Sen Lu
  • Function : Author
Jirong Mao
  • Function : Author
Sera Markoff
  • Function : Author
Alan P. Marscher
  • Function : Author
Satoki Matsushita
  • Function : Author
Lynn D. Matthews
  • Function : Author
Lia Medeiros
  • Function : Author
Karl M. Menten
  • Function : Author
Daniel Michalik
  • Function : Author
Izumi Mizuno
  • Function : Author
Yosuke Mizuno
  • Function : Author
James M. Moran
  • Function : Author
Kotaro Moriyama
  • Function : Author
Cornelia Müller
  • Function : Author
Gibwa Musoke
  • Function : Author
Ioannis Myserlis
  • Function : Author
Andrew Nadolski
  • Function : Author
Hiroshi Nagai
  • Function : Author
Neil M. Nagar
  • Function : Author
Masanori Nakamura
  • Function : Author
Ramesh Narayan
  • Function : Author
Gopal Narayanan
  • Function : Author
Iniyan Natarajan
  • Function : Author
Antonios Nathanail
  • Function : Author
Santiago Navarro Fuentes
  • Function : Author
Roberto Neri
  • Function : Author
Chunchong Ni
  • Function : Author
Aristeidis Noutsos
  • Function : Author
Junghwan Oh
  • Function : Author
Hiroki Okino
  • Function : Author
Héctor Olivares
  • Function : Author
Gisela N. Ortiz-León
  • Function : Author
Tomoaki Oyama
  • Function : Author
Feryal Özel
  • Function : Author
Daniel C. M. Palumbo
  • Function : Author
Georgios Filippos Paraschos
  • Function : Author
Jongho Park
  • Function : Author
Harriet Parsons
  • Function : Author
Nimesh Patel
  • Function : Author
Ue-Li Pen
  • Function : Author
Dominic W. Pesce
  • Function : Author
Vincent Piétu
  • Function : Author
Richard Plambeck
  • Function : Author
Aleksandar Popstefanija
  • Function : Author
Oliver Porth
  • Function : Author
Felix M. Pötzl
  • Function : Author
Ben Prather
  • Function : Author
Jorge A. Preciado-López
  • Function : Author
Hung-Yi Pu
  • Function : Author
Ramprasad Rao
  • Function : Author
Mark G. Rawlings
  • Function : Author
Alexander W. Raymond
  • Function : Author
Luciano Rezzolla
  • Function : Author
Angelo Ricarte
  • Function : Author
Freek Roelofs
  • Function : Author
Alan Rogers
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Ros
  • Function : Author
Cristina Romero-Canizales
  • Function : Author
Arash Roshanineshat
  • Function : Author
Helge Rottmann
  • Function : Author
Alan L. Roy
  • Function : Author
Ignacio Ruiz
  • Function : Author
Chet Ruszczyk
  • Function : Author
Kazi L. J. Rygl
  • Function : Author
Salvador Sánchez
  • Function : Author
David Sánchez-Argüelles
  • Function : Author
Miguel Sánchez-Portal
  • Function : Author
Mahito Sasada
  • Function : Author
Kaushik Satapathy
  • Function : Author
Tuomas Savolainen
  • Function : Author
F. Peter Schloerb
  • Function : Author
Karl-Friedrich Schuster
  • Function : Author
Lijing Shao
  • Function : Author
Zhiqiang Shen
  • Function : Author
Des Small
  • Function : Author
Bong Won Sohn
  • Function : Author
Jason Soohoo
  • Function : Author
Kamal Souccar
  • Function : Author
He Sun
  • Function : Author
Fumie Tazaki
  • Function : Author
Remo P. J. Tilanus
  • Function : Author
Michael Titus
  • Function : Author
Pablo Torne
  • Function : Author
Efthalia Traianou
  • Function : Author
Tyler Trent
  • Function : Author
Sascha Trippe
  • Function : Author
Ilse van Bemmel
  • Function : Author
Huib Jan van Langevelde
  • Function : Author
Daniel R. van Rossum
  • Function : Author
Jesse Vos
  • Function : Author
Jan Wagner
  • Function : Author
Derek Ward-Thompson
  • Function : Author
John Wardle
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Weintroub
  • Function : Author
Norbert Wex
  • Function : Author
Robert Wharton
  • Function : Author
Kaj Wiik
  • Function : Author
Michael F. Wondrak
  • Function : Author
George N. Wong
  • Function : Author
Qingwen Wu
  • Function : Author
Paul Yamaguchi
  • Function : Author
Doosoo Yoon
  • Function : Author
André Young
  • Function : Author
Ken Young
  • Function : Author
Ziri Younsi
  • Function : Author
Feng Yuan
  • Function : Author
Ye-Fei Yuan
  • Function : Author
J. Anton Zensus
  • Function : Author
Shuo Zhang
  • Function : Author
Guang-Yao Zhao
  • Function : Author
Shan-Shan Zhao
  • Function : Author

Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the compact radio source, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), in the Galactic Center on 2017 April 5-11 in the 1.3 mm wavelength band. At the same time, interferometric array data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the Submillimeter Array were collected, providing Sgr A* light curves simultaneous with the EHT observations. These data sets, complementing the EHT very long baseline interferometry, are characterized by a cadence and signal-to-noise ratio previously unattainable for Sgr A* at millimeter wavelengths, and they allow for the investigation of source variability on timescales as short as a minute. While most of the light curves correspond to a low variability state of Sgr A*, the April 11 observations follow an X-ray flare and exhibit strongly enhanced variability. All of the light curves are consistent with a red-noise process, with a power spectral density (PSD) slope measured to be between -2 and -3 on timescales between 1 minute and several hours. Our results indicate a steepening of the PSD slope for timescales shorter than 0.3 hr. The spectral energy distribution is flat at 220 GHz, and there are no time lags between the 213 and 229 GHz frequency bands, suggesting low optical depth for the event horizon scale source. We characterize Sgr A*'s variability, highlighting the different behavior observed just after the X-ray flare, and use Gaussian process modeling to extract a decorrelation timescale and a PSD slope. We also investigate the systematic calibration uncertainties by analyzing data from independent data reduction pipelines.
Fichier principal
Vignette du fichier
Wielgus_2022_ApJL_930_L19.pdf (29.24 Mo) Télécharger le fichier
Origin : Publisher files allowed on an open archive

Dates and versions

insu-03713309 , version 1 (04-07-2022)

Licence

Attribution - CC BY 4.0

Identifiers

Cite

Maciek Wielgus, Nicola Marchili, Iván Martí-Vidal, Garrett K. Keating, Venkatessh Ramakrishnan, et al.. Millimeter Light Curves of Sagittarius A* Observed during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac6428⟩. ⟨insu-03713309⟩
24 View
2 Download

Altmetric

Share

Gmail Facebook Twitter LinkedIn More