Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
New interface
Journal articles

Characterizing and Mitigating Intraday Variability: Reconstructing Source Structure in Accreting Black Holes with mm-VLBI

Avery E. Broderick Roman Gold Boris Georgiev Dominic W. Pesce Paul Tiede Chunchong Ni Kotaro Moriyama Kazunori Akiyama Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Juan Carlos Algaba Richard Anantua Keiichi Asada Rebecca Azulay Uwe Bach Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball Mislav Baloković John Barrett Michi Bauböck Bradford A. Benson Dan Bintley Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Dominique Broguiere Thomas Bronzwaer Sandra Bustamante Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Chiara Ceccobello Andrew Chael Chi-Kwan Chan Koushik Chatterjee Shami Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Xiaopeng Cheng Ilje Cho Pierre Christian Nicholas S. Conroy John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Yuzhu Cui Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 1 Jason Dexter Vedant Dhruv Sheperd S. Doeleman Sean Dougal Sergio A. Dzib Ralph P. Eatough Razieh Emami Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish Ed Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas William T. Freeman Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Charles F. Gammie Roberto García Olivier Gentaz Ciriaco Goddi Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz José L. Gómez Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Kazuhiro Hada Daryl Haggard Kari Haworth Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Dirk Heumann Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda C. M. Violette Impellizzeri Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jiménez-Rosales Michael D. Johnson Svetlana Jorstad Abhishek V. Joshi Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Tomohisa Kawashima Garrett K. Keating Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jae-Young Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Motoki Kino Jun Yi Koay Prashant Kocherlakota Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Carsten Kramer Michael Kramer Thomas P. Krichbaum Cheng-Yu Kuo Noemi La Bella Tod R. Lauer Daeyoung Lee Sang-Sung Lee Po Kin Leung Aviad Levis Zhiyuan Li Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Michael Lindqvist Mikhail Lisakov Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin J. Lonsdale Ru-Sen Lu Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Sera Markoff Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Karl M. Menten Daniel Michalik Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Alejandro Mus Gibwa Musoke Ioannis Myserlis Andrew Nadolski Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Ramesh Narayan Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Santiago Navarro Fuentes Joey Neilsen Roberto Neri Aristeidis Noutsos Michael A. Nowak Junghwan Oh Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Daniel C. M. Palumbo Georgios Filippos Paraschos Jongho Park Harriet Parsons Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Vincent Piétu Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Ben Prather Jorge A. Preciado-López Hung-Yi Pu Venkatessh Ramakrishnan Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Angelo Ricarte Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Cristina Romero-Cañizales Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Ignacio Ruiz Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L. J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez David Sánchez-Argüelles Miguel Sánchez-Portal Mahito Sasada Kaushik Satapathy Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Jonathan Schonfeld Karl-Friedrich Schuster Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo Kamal Souccar He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Remo P. J. Tilanus Michael Titus Pablo Torne Efthalia Traianou Tyler Trent Sascha Trippe Matthew Turk Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jesse Vos Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Maciek Wielgus Kaj Wiik Gunther Witzel Michael F. Wondrak George N. Wong Qingwen Wu Paul Yamaguchi Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Guang-Yao Zhao Shuo Zhang Shan-Shan Zhao 
Abstract : The extraordinary physical resolution afforded by the Event Horizon Telescope has opened a window onto the astrophysical phenomena unfolding on horizon scales in two known black holes, M87* and Sgr A*. However, with this leap in resolution has come a new set of practical complications. Sgr A* exhibits intraday variability that violates the assumptions underlying Earth aperture synthesis, limiting traditional image reconstruction methods to short timescales and data sets with very sparse (u, v) coverage. We present a new set of tools to detect and mitigate this variability. We develop a data-driven, model-agnostic procedure to detect and characterize the spatial structure of intraday variability. This method is calibrated against a large set of mock data sets, producing an empirical estimator of the spatial power spectrum of the brightness fluctuations. We present a novel Bayesian noise modeling algorithm that simultaneously reconstructs an average image and statistical measure of the fluctuations about it using a parameterized form for the excess variance in the complex visibilities not otherwise explained by the statistical errors. These methods are validated using a variety of simulated data, including general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations appropriate for Sgr A* and M87*. We find that the reconstructed source structure and variability are robust to changes in the underlying image model. We apply these methods to the 2017 EHT observations of M87*, finding evidence for variability across the EHT observing campaign. The variability mitigation strategies presented are widely applicable to very long baseline interferometry observations of variable sources generally, for which they provide a data-informed averaging procedure and natural characterization of inter-epoch image consistency.
Complete list of metadata

https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-03713306
Contributor : Nathalie POTHIER Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, July 4, 2022 - 3:59:30 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 12:00:56 PM

File

Broderick_2022_ApJL_930_L21.pd...
Publisher files allowed on an open archive

Licence


Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Identifiers

Citation

Avery E. Broderick, Roman Gold, Boris Georgiev, Dominic W. Pesce, Paul Tiede, et al.. Characterizing and Mitigating Intraday Variability: Reconstructing Source Structure in Accreting Black Holes with mm-VLBI. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2022, 930, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/ac6584⟩. ⟨insu-03713306⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

21

Files downloads

6