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Cratonic keels controlled the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)

Abstract : Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are exceptionally voluminous magmatic events frequently related to continental break-up, global climate changes and mass extinctions. One interesting aspect of many LIPs is their spatial proximity to cratons, begging the question of a potential control of thick lithosphere on their emplacement. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the thick lithospheric mantle of the Precambrian cratons that formed the central portion of Pangea and are currently located on the continents surrounding the Central Atlantic Ocean. CAMP outcrops are frequently located over the margins of the thick cratonic keels, as imaged by recent tomographic studies, suggesting a role of lithosphere architecture in controlling magma genesis and emplacement. Here we focus on CAMP dykes and sills from the Hank, Hodh, and Kaarta basins in North-Western Africa (NW-Africa, Mali and Mauritania) emplaced at the edge of the Reguibat and Leo-Man Shields. The investigated intrusive rocks show compositions similar to most CAMP magmas, in particular those of the Tiourjdal geochemical group, limited to NW-Africa, and of the Prevalent group, occurring all over the CAMP. Geochemical modelling of CAMP basalts requires a Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM) source enriched by recycled continental crust (1-4%) and melting beneath a lithosphere of ca. 80 km in thickness. On the contrary, melting under a significantly thicker lithosphere (>110 km) does not produce magmas with compositions similar to those of CAMP basalts. This suggests that CAMP magmatism was likely favoured by decompression-induced partial melting of the upwelling asthenospheric mantle along the steep lithospheric boundaries of stable cratons. The architecture of the pre-existing lithosphere (i.e., the presence of stable thick cratonic keels juxtaposed to relatively thinner lithosphere) appears to have been a critical factor for localizing mantle upwelling and partial melting during extensive magmatic events such as in the CAMP.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 30, 2022 - 2:33:35 PM
Last modification on : Monday, July 4, 2022 - 3:33:57 AM

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Andrea Boscaini, Andrea Marzoli, Hervé Bertrand, Massimo Chiaradia, Fred Jourdan, et al.. Cratonic keels controlled the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, 2022, 584, ⟨10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117480⟩. ⟨insu-03710166⟩

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