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Bed load transport and boundary roughness changes as competing causes of hysteresis in the relationship between river discharge and seismic amplitude recorded near a steep mountain stream

Abstract : Hysteresis in the relationship between bed load transport and river stage is a well-documented phenomenon with multiple known causes. Consequently, numerous studies have interpreted hysteresis in the relationship between seismic ground motion near rivers and some measure of flow strength (i.e., discharge or stage) as the signature of bed load transport. Here we test this hypothesis in the Erlenbach stream (Swiss Prealps) using a metric to quantitatively compare hysteresis in seismic data with hysteresis recorded by geophones attached beneath steel plates within the streambed, a well-calibrated proxy for direct sediment transport measurements. We find that while both the geophones and seismometers demonstrate hysteresis, the magnitude and direction of hysteresis are not significantly correlated between these data, indicating that the seismic signal at this site is primarily reflecting hysteresis in processes other than sediment transport. Seismic hysteresis also does not correlate significantly with the magnitude of sediment transport recorded by the geophones, contrary to previous studies' assumptions. We suggest that hydrologic sources and changes in water turbulence, for instance due to evolving boundary conditions at the bed, rather than changes in sediment transport rates, may sometimes contribute to or even dominate the hysteresis observed in seismic amplitudes near steep mountain rivers.Plain Language SummaryAn increasing number of studies have recently observed changes in the amount of seismic shaking (hysteresis) recorded near a river at a given discharge during floods. Most studies have assumed that this hysteresis was caused by changes in the amount of sediment being transported in the river and have therefore used the hysteresis to assess sediment transport rates and patterns. We examine concurrent seismic and sediment transport data from a steep mountain stream in the Swiss Prealps and find that changes in seismic shaking are unrelated and even opposed (increasing versus decreasing) to changes in sediment transport rates for four out of five transport events. Water turbulence, rather than sediment transport, appears to be the strongest source of seismic shaking, and changes in seismic shaking are most likely caused by changes in turbulence or how turbulence transmits energy through the river bed. These effects may be due to rearrangement of sediment around large boulders on the bed or slight shifting of the boulders themselves. Our results have significant implications for the growing field of fluvial seismology and the evaluation of seismic data near rivers, as previous interpretations of seismic hysteresis as evidence for sediment transport may not always be accurate. </div> </div> <div class="keywords"> <div class="keyword-content"> <strong>Keywords</strong> : <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/hysteresis/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">hysteresis</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/fluvial%20seismology/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">fluvial seismology</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/sediment%20transport/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">sediment transport</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/water%20turbulence/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">water turbulence</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/seismic%20geomorphology/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">seismic geomorphology</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/bed%20organization/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">bed organization</a> </div> </div> <div class="metadatas"> <div><strong>Document type</strong> : <div class="label label-ART label-danger"> Journal articles </div> </div> <div><strong>Domain</strong> : <blockquote style="margin-left:65px;margin-top:-15px;"> <div> <div> <strong> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/level0_domain_s/sdu" target="_blank">Sciences of the Universe [physics]</a> </strong> </div> </div> </blockquote> </div> </div> <div class="metadatas-complete"> <span class="metadatas-complete-title"> Complete list of metadata </span> <span class="btn-view text-center"> <button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-sm" aria-expanded="false" onclick="viewDocMetadatas(3706525)"> <span class="glyphicon glyphicon-th-list" aria-hidden="true" ></span>  Display </button> </span> <div class="content"></div> </div> <!-- Relationships --> <!-- Cited References --> <!-- Gallery --> <hr/> <div> <small><br/>Contributor : <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/contributorId_i/106505" target="_blank">Nathalie POTHIER</a> <a href='javascript:void(0);' onclick="$('#form-login').submit();">Connect in order to contact the contributor</a> <br/>Submitted on : Monday, June 27, 2022 - 4:59:20 PM<br/>Last modification on : Wednesday, June 29, 2022 - 3:09:27 AM <br/><br/> </small> </div> </div> <div class="col-md-4"> <!-- Fichiers --> <!-- Licence --> <!-- Open Access --> <div class="widget widget-openaccess"> <h3 class="widget-header">Links full text</h3> <div class="widget-content"> <span> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" referrerpolicy="strict-origin-when-cross-origin"> <img src="/img/logo-openaccess.png" alt="openaccess"> </a> </span> </div> </div> <!-- Publisher Link --> <!-- Identifiants --> <div class="widget widget-identifiants"> <h3 class="widget-header">Identifiers</h3> <div class="widget-content"> <ul> <li>HAL Id : <strong>insu-03706525, version 1</strong></li> <li>BIBCODE : <strong><a href="" target="_blank" referrerpolicy="strict-origin-when-cross-origin">2017JGRF..122.1182R</a></strong></li><li>DOI : <strong><a href="" target="_blank" referrerpolicy="strict-origin-when-cross-origin">10.1002/2016JF004062</a></strong></li> </ul> </div> </div> <!-- Collections --> <div class="widget widget-collection"> <h3 class="widget-header">Collections</h3> <div class="widget-content"> <p><a href="/INSU" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" title="INSU - Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers">INSU</a> | <a href="/UGA" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" title="HAL Grenoble Alpes">UGA</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- Relations --> <!-- Citation --> <div class="widget widget-citation"> <h3 class="widget-header">Citation</h3> <div class="widget-content ref-biblio">Danica L. Roth, Noah J. Finnegan, Emily E. Brodsky, Dieter Rickenmann, Jens M. Turowski, et al.. Bed load transport and boundary roughness changes as competing causes of hysteresis in the relationship between river discharge and seismic amplitude recorded near a steep mountain stream. <i>Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface</i>, 2017, 122, pp.1182-1200. <a target="_blank" href="">⟨10.1002/2016JF004062⟩</a>. <a target="_blank" href="">⟨insu-03706525⟩</a></div> </div> <!-- Export --> <div class="widget widget-export"> <h3 class="widget-header">Export</h3> <div class="widget-content" style="text-align:center"> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03706525v1/bibtex" role="button" target="_blank">BibTeX</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03706525v1/tei" role="button" target="_blank">TEI</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03706525v1/dc" role="button" target="_blank">DC</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03706525v1/dcterms" role="button" target="_blank">DCterms</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03706525v1/endnote" role="button">EndNote</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03706525v1/datacite" role="button">Datacite</a> </div> </div> <!-- Partager --> <div class="widget widget-share"> <h3 class="widget-header">Share</h3> <div class="widget-content" > <!-- AddToAny BEGIN --> <div class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_32 a2a_default_style"> <a class="a2a_button_facebook"></a> <a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a> <a class="a2a_button_email"></a> <a class="a2a_dd" href=""></a> </div> <script async src=""></script> <!-- AddToAny END --> </div> </div> <!-- Altmetrics --> <div class="widget widget-metrics"> <h3 class="widget-header">Metrics</h3> <div class="widget-content" style="text-align: center"> <div class="row"> <div class=""> <div style="height:3em"><strong>Record views</strong></div> <h2 style="margin-top:10px;"><span class="label label-primary">214</span></h2> </div> </div> <hr style="margin-top:20px;margin-bottom:20px;"/> <div data-badge-details="right" data-badge-type="donut" data-hide-no-mentions="false" class="altmetric-embed" data-doi='10.1002/2016JF004062' ></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!-- **************************** Footer ****************************** --> <footer role="contentinfo" class="footer footer-default"> <div class="row" style="margin:0"> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5>Contact</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Support</a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5>Resources</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" >Documentation</a> </li> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > FAQ </a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > API </a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > OAI-PMH </a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > AuréHAL </a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> Information</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="">Personal data and privacy </a> </li> <li> <a href="">Legal notice </a> </li> <li> <a href="">Accessibility</a> </li> <li> <a href="" >RGAA</a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> Legal issues</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" >I publish, what are my rights?</a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > Sherpa Romeo </a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> Portails </h5> <ul> <li><a href="" >Portals list</a></li> <li><a href="//" target="_blank" >HAL SHS</a></li> <li><a href="//" target="_blank" >HAL Thèses</a></li> <li><a href="//" target="_blank" >mediHAL</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> CCSD </h5> <ul> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > CCSD </a> </li> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > </a> </li> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </footer> <script type="text/javascript"> window.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", () => { $(document.body).tooltip({ selector: '[data-toggle="tooltip"]' , html: true, container: 'body'}); // Retrieve all buttons, convert it to an Array. 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