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Journal Articles The Astronomical Journal Year : 2022

A Close-in Puffy Neptune with Hidden Friends: The Enigma of TOI 620

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Michael A. Reefe
  • Function : Author
Rafael Luque
  • Function : Author
Eric Gaidos
  • Function : Author
Corey Beard
  • Function : Author
Peter P. Plavchan
  • Function : Author
Bryson L. Cale
  • Function : Author
Enric Palle
  • Function : Author
Hannu Parviainen
  • Function : Author
Dax L. Feliz
  • Function : Author
Jason Eastman
  • Function : Author
Keivan Stassun
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Gagné
  • Function : Author
Jon M. Jenkins
  • Function : Author
Patricia T. Boyd
  • Function : Author
Richard C. Kidwell
  • Function : Author
Scott Mcdermott
  • Function : Author
Karen A. Collins
  • Function : Author
William Fong
  • Function : Author
Natalia Guerrero
  • Function : Author
Jacob Bean
  • Function : Author
Charles A. Beichman
  • Function : Author
John Berberian
  • Function : Author
Allyson Bieryla
  • Function : Author
François Bouchy
  • Function : Author
Madison Brady
  • Function : Author
Edward M. Bryant
  • Function : Author
Luca Cacciapuoti
  • Function : Author
Caleb I. Cañas
  • Function : Author
David R. Ciardi
  • Function : Author
Kevin I. Collins
  • Function : Author
Ian J. M. Crossfield
  • Function : Author
Courtney D. Dressing
  • Function : Author
Philipp Eigmüller
  • Function : Author
Mohammed El Mufti
  • Function : Author
Emma Esparza-Borges
  • Function : Author
Akihiko Fukui
  • Function : Author
Peter Gao
  • Function : Author
Claire Geneser
  • Function : Author
Crystal L. Gnilka
  • Function : Author
Erica Gonzales
  • Function : Author
Arvind F. Gupta
  • Function : Author
Sam Halverson
  • Function : Author
Fred Hearty
  • Function : Author
Steve B. Howell
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Irwin
  • Function : Author
Shubham Kanodia
  • Function : Author
David Kasper
  • Function : Author
Takanori Kodama
  • Function : Author
Veselin Kostov
  • Function : Author
David W. Latham
  • Function : Author
Monika Lendl
  • Function : Author
Andrea Lin
  • Function : Author
John H. Livingston
  • Function : Author
Jack Lubin
  • Function : Author
Suvrath Mahadevan
  • Function : Author
Rachel Matson
  • Function : Author
Elisabeth Matthews
  • Function : Author
Norio Narita
  • Function : Author
Patrick Newman
  • Function : Author
Joe Ninan
  • Function : Author
Ares Osborn
  • Function : Author
Samuel N. Quinn
  • Function : Author
Paul Robertson
  • Function : Author
Arpita Roy
  • Function : Author
Joshua Schlieder
  • Function : Author
Christian Schwab
  • Function : Author
Andreas Seifahrt
  • Function : Author
Gareth D. Smith
  • Function : Author
Ahmad Sohani
  • Function : Author
Guðmundur Stefánsson
  • Function : Author
Daniel Stevens
  • Function : Author
Julian Stürmer
  • Function : Author
Angelle Tanner
  • Function : Author
Ryan Terrien
  • Function : Author
Johanna Teske
  • Function : Author
David Vermilion
  • Function : Author
Sharon X. Wang
  • Function : Author
Justin Wittrock
  • Function : Author
Jason T. Wright
  • Function : Author
Mathias Zechmeister
  • Function : Author
Farzaneh Zohrabi
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present the validation of a transiting low-density exoplanet orbiting the M2.5 dwarf TOI 620 discovered by the NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. We utilize photometric data from both TESS and ground-based follow-up observations to validate the ephemerides of the 5.09 day transiting signal and vet false-positive scenarios. High-contrast imaging data are used to resolve the stellar host and exclude stellar companions at separations ≳0.″2. We obtain follow-up spectroscopy and corresponding precise radial velocities (RVs) with multiple precision radial velocity (PRV) spectrographs to confirm the planetary nature of the transiting exoplanet. We calculate a 5σ upper limit of M P < 7.1 M and ρ P < 0.74 g cm-3, and we identify a nontransiting 17.7 day candidate. We also find evidence for a substellar (1-20 M J ) companion with a projected separation ≲20 au from a combined analysis of Gaia, adaptive optics imaging, and RVs. With the discovery of this outer companion, we carry out a detailed exploration of the possibilities that TOI 620 b might instead be a circum-secondary planet or a pair of eclipsing binary stars orbiting the host in a hierarchical triple system. We find, under scrutiny, that we can exclude both of these scenarios from the multiwavelength transit photometry, thus validating TOI 620 b as a low-density exoplanet transiting the central star in this system. The low density of TOI 620 b makes it one of the most amenable exoplanets for atmospheric characterization, such as with the James Webb Space Telescope and Ariel, validated or confirmed by the TESS mission to date.
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Dates and versions

insu-03705343 , version 1 (27-06-2022)

Licence

Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Michael A. Reefe, Rafael Luque, Eric Gaidos, Corey Beard, Peter P. Plavchan, et al.. A Close-in Puffy Neptune with Hidden Friends: The Enigma of TOI 620. The Astronomical Journal, 2022, 163, ⟨10.3847/1538-3881/ac658b⟩. ⟨insu-03705343⟩
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