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Journal Articles Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Year : 2022

Accretion rates in hierarchical triple systems with discs

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1
Simone Ceppi
  • Function : Author
Giuseppe Lodato
  • Function : Author
Cathie Clarke
  • Function : Author
Claudia Toci
  • Function : Author
Daniel J. Price
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Young multiple systems accrete most of their final mass in the first few Myr of their lifetime, during the protostellar and protoplanetary phases. Previous studies showed that in binary systems the majority of the accreted mass falls on to the lighter star, thus evolving to mass equalization. However, young stellar systems often comprise more than two stars, which are expected to be in hierarchical configurations. Despite its astrophysical relevance, differential accretion in hierarchical systems remains to be understood. In this work, we investigate whether the accretion trends expected in binaries are valid for higher order multiples. We performed a set of three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of binaries and of hierarchical triples (HTs) embedded in an accretion disc, with the code PHANTOM. We identify for the first time accretion trends in HTs and their deviations compared to binaries. These deviations, due to the interaction of the small binary with the infalling material from the circumtriple disc, can be described with a semi-analytical prescription. Generally, the smaller binary of an HT accretes more mass than a single star of the same mass as the smaller binary. We found that in an HT, if the small binary is heavier than the third body, the standard differential accretion scenario (whereby the secondary accretes more of the mass) is hampered. Reciprocally, if the small binary is lighter than the third body, the standard differential accretion scenario is enhanced. The peculiar differential accretion mechanism we find in HTs is expected to affect their mass ratio distribution.

Dates and versions

insu-03705338 , version 1 (27-06-2022)

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Simone Ceppi, Nicolás Cuello, Giuseppe Lodato, Cathie Clarke, Claudia Toci, et al.. Accretion rates in hierarchical triple systems with discs. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2022, 514, pp.906-919. ⟨10.1093/mnras/stac1390⟩. ⟨insu-03705338⟩
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