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Spiral Arms and a Massive Dust Disk with Non-Keplerian Kinematics: Possible Evidence for Gravitational Instability in the Disk of Elias 2-27

Abstract : To determine the origin of the spiral structure observed in the dust continuum emission of Elias 2-27 we analyze multiwavelength continuum ALMA data with a resolution of ~0"2 (~23 au) at 0.89, 1.3, and 3.3 mm. We also study the kinematics of the disk with 13CO and C18O ALMA observations in the J = 3-2 transition. The spiral arm morphology is recovered at all wavelengths in the dust continuum observations, where we measure contrast and spectral index variations along the spiral arms and detect subtle dust-trapping signatures. We determine that the emission from the midplane is cold and interpret the optical depth results as signatures of a disk mass higher than previous constraints. From the gas data, we search for deviations from Keplerian motion and trace the morphology of the emitting surfaces and the velocity profiles. We find an azimuthally varying emission layer height in the system, large-scale emission surrounding the disk, and strong perturbations in the channel maps, colocated with the spirals. Additionally, we develop multigrain dust and gas hydrodynamical simulations of a gravitationally unstable disk and compare them to the observations. Given the large-scale emission and highly perturbed gas structure, together with the comparison of continuum observations to theoretical predictions, we propose infall-triggered gravitational instabilities as the origin for the observed spiral structure.
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https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-03705307
Contributor : Nathalie POTHIER Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, June 27, 2022 - 8:55:07 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 29, 2022 - 3:09:32 AM

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T. Paneque-Carreño, L. M. Pérez, M. Benisty, C. Hall, B. Veronesi, et al.. Spiral Arms and a Massive Dust Disk with Non-Keplerian Kinematics: Possible Evidence for Gravitational Instability in the Disk of Elias 2-27. The Astrophysical Journal, 2021, 914, ⟨10.3847/1538-4357/abf243⟩. ⟨insu-03705307⟩

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