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Journal Articles The Astronomical Journal Year : 2019

The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics from 10 to 100 au

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Eric L. Nielsen
  • Function : Author
Robert J. de Rosa
  • Function : Author
Bruce Macintosh
  • Function : Author
Jason J. Wang
  • Function : Author
Jean-Baptiste Ruffio
  • Function : Author
Eugene Chiang
  • Function : Author
Mark S. Marley
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Didier Saumon
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Dmitry Savransky
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S. Mark Ammons
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Vanessa P. Bailey
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Travis Barman
  • Function : Author
Célia Blain
  • Function : Author
Joanna Bulger
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Adam Burrows
  • Function : Author
Jeffrey Chilcote
  • Function : Author
Tara Cotten
  • Function : Author
Ian Czekala
  • Function : Author
Rene Doyon
  • Function : Author
Thomas M. Esposito
  • Function : Author
Daniel Fabrycky
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Michael P. Fitzgerald
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Katherine B. Follette
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Jonathan J. Fortney
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Benjamin L. Gerard
  • Function : Author
Stephen J. Goodsell
  • Function : Author
James R. Graham
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Alexandra Z. Greenbaum
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Pascale Hibon
  • Function : Author
Sasha Hinkley
  • Function : Author
Lea A. Hirsch
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Justin Hom
  • Function : Author
Li-Wei Hung
  • Function : Author
Rebekah Ilene Dawson
  • Function : Author
Patrick Ingraham
  • Function : Author
Paul Kalas
  • Function : Author
Quinn Konopacky
  • Function : Author
James E. Larkin
  • Function : Author
Eve J. Lee
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Jonathan W. Lin
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Jérôme Maire
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Franck Marchis
  • Function : Author
Christian Marois
  • Function : Author
Stanimir Metchev
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Maxwell A. Millar-Blanchaer
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Katie M. Morzinski
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Rebecca Oppenheimer
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David Palmer
  • Function : Author
Jennifer Patience
  • Function : Author
Marshall Perrin
  • Function : Author
Lisa Poyneer
  • Function : Author
Laurent Pueyo
  • Function : Author
Roman R. Rafikov
  • Function : Author
Abhijith Rajan
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Julien Rameau
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Fredrik T. Rantakyrö
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Bin Ren
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Adam C. Schneider
  • Function : Author
Anand Sivaramakrishnan
  • Function : Author
Inseok Song
  • Function : Author
Remi Soummer
  • Function : Author
Melisa Tallis
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Sandrine Thomas
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Kimberly Ward-Duong
  • Function : Author
Schuyler Wolff
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Abstract

We present a statistical analysis of the first 300 stars observed by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. This subsample includes six detected planets and three brown dwarfs; from these detections and our contrast curves we infer the underlying distributions of substellar companions with respect to their mass, semimajor axis, and host stellar mass. We uncover a strong correlation between planet occurrence rate and host star mass, with stars M * > 1.5 M more likely to host planets with masses between 2 and 13M Jup and semimajor axes of 3-100 au at 99.92% confidence. We fit a double power-law model in planet mass (m) and semimajor axis (a) for planet populations around high-mass stars (M * > 1.5 M ) of the form {d}2N/({dm} {da})\propto {m}α {a}β , finding α = -2.4 ± 0.8 and β = -2.0 ± 0.5, and an integrated occurrence rate of {9}-4+5% between 5-13M Jup and 10-100 au. A significantly lower occurrence rate is obtained for brown dwarfs around all stars, with {0.8}-0.5+0.8% of stars hosting a brown dwarf companion between 13-80M Jup and 10-100 au. Brown dwarfs also appear to be distributed differently in mass and semimajor axis compared to giant planets; whereas giant planets follow a bottom-heavy mass distribution and favor smaller semimajor axes, brown dwarfs exhibit just the opposite behaviors. Comparing to studies of short-period giant planets from the radial velocity method, our results are consistent with a peak in occurrence of giant planets between ∼1 and 10 au. We discuss how these trends, including the preference of giant planets for high-mass host stars, point to formation of giant planets by core/pebble accretion, and formation of brown dwarfs by gravitational instability.

Dates and versions

insu-03703851 , version 1 (24-06-2022)

Identifiers

Cite

Eric L. Nielsen, Robert J. de Rosa, Bruce Macintosh, Jason J. Wang, Jean-Baptiste Ruffio, et al.. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics from 10 to 100 au. The Astronomical Journal, 2019, 158, ⟨10.3847/1538-3881/ab16e9⟩. ⟨insu-03703851⟩
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