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Nitrogen oxide in protostellar envelopes and shocks: the ASAI survey

Abstract : The high sensitivity of the IRAM 30-m Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM (ASAI) unbiased spectral survey in the mm window allows us to detect NO emission towards both the Class I object SVS13-A and the protostellar outflow shock L1157-B1. We detect the hyperfine components of the 2Π1/2J = 3/2 → 1/2 (at 151 GHz) and the 2Π1/2J = 5/2 → 3/2 (at 250 GHz) spectral pattern. The two objects show different NO profiles: (i) SVS13-A emits through narrow (1.5 km s-1) lines at the systemic velocity, while (ii) L1157-B1 shows broad (∼5 km s-1) blueshifted emission. For SVS13-A, the analysis leads to Tex ≥ 4 K, N(NO) ≤ 3 × 1015 cm-2, and indicates the association of NO with the protostellar envelope. In L1157-B1, NO is tracing the extended outflow cavity: Tex ≃ 4-5 K, and N(NO) = 5.5 ± 1.5 × 1015 cm-2. Using C18O, 13C18O, C17O, and 13C17O ASAI observations, we derive an NO fractional abundance less than ∼10-7 for the SVS13-A envelope, in agreement with previous measurements towards extended photodissociation regions (PDRs) and prestellar objects. Conversely, a definite X(NO) enhancement is measured towards L1157-B1, ∼6 × 10-6, showing that the NO production increases in shocks. The public code UCLCHEM was used to interpret the NO observations, confirming that the abundance observed in SVS13-A can be attained in an envelope with a gas density of 105 cm-3 and a kinetic temperature of 40 K. The NO abundance in L1157-B1 is reproduced with pre-shock densities of 105 cm-3 subjected to a ∼45 km s-1 shock.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 13, 2022 - 2:39:08 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 25, 2022 - 3:06:27 AM

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C. Codella, S. Viti, B. Lefloch, J. Holdship, R. Bachiller, et al.. Nitrogen oxide in protostellar envelopes and shocks: the ASAI survey. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2018, 474, pp.5694-5703. ⟨10.1093/mnras/stx3196⟩. ⟨insu-03693571⟩

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