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Journal Articles The Astronomical Journal Year : 2018

The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Limits on Planet Occurrence Rates under Conservative Assumptions

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Jordan M. Stone
  • Function : Author
Andrew J. Skemer
  • Function : Author
Philip M. Hinz
  • Function : Author
Mariangela Bonavita
  • Function : Author
Kaitlin M. Kratter
  • Function : Author
Anne-Lise Maire
  • Function : Author
Denis Defrere
  • Function : Author
Vanessa P. Bailey
  • Function : Author
Eckhart Spalding
  • Function : Author
Jarron M. Leisenring
  • Function : Author
S. Desidera
Beth Biller
  • Function : Author
Charles E. Woodward
  • Function : Author
Th. Henning
Michael F. Skrutskie
  • Function : Author
J. A. Eisner
  • Function : Author
Justin R. Crepp
  • Function : Author
Jennifer Patience
  • Function : Author
Gerd Weigelt
  • Function : Author
Robert J. de Rosa
  • Function : Author
Joshua Schlieder
Wolfgang Brandner
  • Function : Author
Dániel Apai
  • Function : Author
Kate Su
  • Function : Author
Steve Ertel
  • Function : Author
Kimberly Ward-Duong
  • Function : Author
Katie M. Morzinski
  • Function : Author
Dieter Schertl
  • Function : Author
Karl-Heinz Hofmann
  • Function : Author
Laird M. Close
  • Function : Author
Stefan S. Brems
  • Function : Author
Jonathan J. Fortney
  • Function : Author
Apurva Oza
  • Function : Author
Esther Buenzli
  • Function : Author
Brandon Bass
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present the results of the largest L‧ (3.8 μm) direct imaging survey for exoplanets to date, the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH). We observed 98 stars with spectral types from B to M. Cool planets emit a larger share of their flux in L‧ compared to shorter wavelengths, affording LEECH an advantage in detecting low-mass, old, and cold-start giant planets. We emphasize proximity over youth in our target selection, probing physical separations smaller than other direct imaging surveys. For FGK stars, LEECH outperforms many previous studies, placing tighter constraints on the hot-start planet occurrence frequency interior to ∼20 au. For less luminous, cold-start planets, LEECH provides the best constraints on giant-planet frequency interior to ∼20 au around FGK stars. Direct imaging survey results depend sensitively on both the choice of evolutionary model (e.g., hot- or cold-start) and assumptions (explicit or implicit) about the shape of the underlying planet distribution, in particular its radial extent. Artificially low limits on the planet occurrence frequency can be derived when the shape of the planet distribution is assumed to extend to very large separations, well beyond typical protoplanetary dust-disk radii (≲50 au), and when hot-start models are used exclusively. We place a conservative upper limit on the planet occurrence frequency using cold-start models and planetary population distributions that do not extend beyond typical protoplanetary dust-disk radii. We find that ≲90% of FGK systems can host a 7-10 M Jup planet from 5 to 50 au. This limit leaves open the possibility that planets in this range are common.

Dates and versions

insu-03693521 , version 1 (10-06-2022)

Identifiers

Cite

Jordan M. Stone, Andrew J. Skemer, Philip M. Hinz, Mariangela Bonavita, Kaitlin M. Kratter, et al.. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Limits on Planet Occurrence Rates under Conservative Assumptions. The Astronomical Journal, 2018, 156, ⟨10.3847/1538-3881/aaec00⟩. ⟨insu-03693521⟩
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