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Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Year : 2017

3D Radiation Nonideal Magnetohydrodynamical Simulations of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks

, , , (1)
1
M. Flock
  • Function : Author
S. Fromang
  • Function : Author
N. J. Turner
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Many planets orbit within 1 au of their stars, raising questions about their origins. Particularly puzzling are the planets found near the silicate sublimation front. We investigate conditions near the front in the protostellar disk around a young intermediate-mass star, using the first global 3D radiation nonideal MHD simulations in this context. We treat the starlight heating; the silicate grains’ sublimation and deposition at the local, time-varying temperature and density; temperature-dependent ohmic dissipation; and various initial magnetic fields. The results show magnetorotational turbulence around the sublimation front at 0.5 au. The disk interior to 0.8 au is turbulent, with velocities exceeding 10% of the sound speed. Beyond 0.8 au is the dead zone, cooler than 1000 K and with turbulence orders of magnitude weaker. A local pressure maximum just inside the dead zone concentrates solid particles, favoring their growth. Over many orbits, a vortex develops at the dead zone’s inner edge, increasing the disk’s thickness locally by around 10%. We synthetically observe the results using Monte Carlo transfer calculations, finding that the sublimation front is near-infrared bright. The models with net vertical magnetic fields develop extended, magnetically supported atmospheres that reprocess extra starlight, raising the near-infrared flux 20%. The vortex throws a nonaxisymmetric shadow on the outer disk. At wavelengths > 2 μ {{m}}, the flux varies several percent on monthly timescales. The variations are more regular when the vortex is present. The vortex is directly visible as an arc at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths, given sub-au spatial resolution.

Dates and versions

insu-03692537 , version 1 (09-06-2022)

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M. Flock, S. Fromang, N. J. Turner, M. Benisty. 3D Radiation Nonideal Magnetohydrodynamical Simulations of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks. The Astrophysical Journal, 2017, 835, ⟨10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/230⟩. ⟨insu-03692537⟩
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