ALMA Observations of Elias 2-24: A Protoplanetary Disk with Multiple Gaps in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Letters Year : 2017

ALMA Observations of Elias 2-24: A Protoplanetary Disk with Multiple Gaps in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud

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1
Lucas A. Cieza
  • Function : Author
Simon Casassus
Sebastian Pérez
  • Function : Author
Antonio Hales
  • Function : Author
Miguel Cárcamo
Megan Ansdell
  • Function : Author
Henning Avenhaus
  • Function : Author
Amelia Bayo
  • Function : Author
Gesa H. -M. Bertrang
  • Function : Author
Hector Cánovas
  • Function : Author
Valentin Christiaens
William Dent
  • Function : Author
Gabriel Ferrero
  • Function : Author
Roberto Gamen
  • Function : Author
Johan Olofsson
Santiago Orcajo
  • Function : Author
Axel Osses
  • Function : Author
Karla Peña-Ramirez
  • Function : Author
David Principe
  • Function : Author
Dary Ruíz-Rodríguez
  • Function : Author
Matthias R. Schreiber
  • Function : Author
Jonathan P. Williams
  • Function : Author
Alice Zurlo
  • Function : Author

Abstract

We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum observations at 0\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 2 (25 au) resolution of Elias 2-24, one of the largest and brightest protoplanetary disks in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud, and we report the presence of three partially resolved concentric gaps located at ∼20, 52, and 87 au from the star. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the disk to constrain its surface density and temperature radial profile and place the disk structure in the context of mechanisms capable of forming narrow gaps such as condensation fronts and dynamical clearing by actively forming planets. In particular, we estimate the disk temperature at the locations of the gaps to be 23, 15, and 12 K (at 20, 52, and 87 au, respectively), very close to the expected snowlines of CO (23-28 K) and N2 (12-15 K). Similarly, by assuming that the widths of the gaps correspond to 4-8× the Hill radii of forming planets (as suggested by numerical simulations), we estimate planet masses in the range of 0.2{--}1.5 {M}{Jup}, 1.0{--}8.0 {M}{Jup}, and 0.02{--}0.15 {M}{Jup} for the inner, middle, and outer gap, respectively. Given the surface density profile of the disk, the amount of “missing mass” at the location of each one of these gaps (between 4 and 20 {M}{Jup}) is more than sufficient to account for the formation of such planets.

Dates and versions

insu-03692462 , version 1 (09-06-2022)

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Lucas A. Cieza, Simon Casassus, Sebastian Pérez, Antonio Hales, Miguel Cárcamo, et al.. ALMA Observations of Elias 2-24: A Protoplanetary Disk with Multiple Gaps in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2017, 851, ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/aa9b7b⟩. ⟨insu-03692462⟩
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