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Journal Articles The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Year : 2016

197 Candidates and 104 Validated Planets in K2’s First Five Fields

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Ian J. M. Crossfield
  • Function : Author
David R. Ciardi
  • Function : Author
Erik A. Petigura
  • Function : Author
Evan Sinukoff
  • Function : Author
Joshua E. Schlieder
  • Function : Author
Andrew W. Howard
  • Function : Author
Charles A. Beichman
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Howard Isaacson
  • Function : Author
Courtney D. Dressing
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Jessie L. Christiansen
  • Function : Author
Benjamin J. Fulton
  • Function : Author
Sébastien Lépine
  • Function : Author
Lauren Weiss
  • Function : Author
Lea Hirsch
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John Livingston
Christoph Baranec
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Nicholas M. Law
  • Function : Author
Reed Riddle
  • Function : Author
Carl Ziegler
Steve B. Howell
  • Function : Author
Elliott Horch
  • Function : Author
Mark Everett
  • Function : Author
Johanna Teske
Arturo O. Martinez
  • Function : Author
Christian Obermeier
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Björn Benneke
Nic Scott
Niall Deacon
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Kimberly M. Aller
  • Function : Author
Brad M. S. Hansen
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Luigi Mancini
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Simona Ciceri
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Rafael Brahm
Andrés Jordán
  • Function : Author
Heather A. Knutson
  • Function : Author
Thomas Henning
Michael C. Liu
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Justin R. Crepp
  • Function : Author
Joshua Lothringer
  • Function : Author
Phil Hinz
  • Function : Author
Vanessa Bailey
  • Function : Author
Andrew Skemer
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Abstract

We present 197 planet candidates discovered using data from the first year of the NASA K2 mission (Campaigns 0-4), along with the results of an intensive program of photometric analyses, stellar spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and statistical validation. We distill these candidates into sets of 104 validated planets (57 in multi-planet systems), 30 false positives, and 63 remaining candidates. Our validated systems span a range of properties, with median values of R P = 2.3 {R}\oplus , P = 8.6 days, {T}{eff} = 5300 K, and Kp = 12.7 mag. Stellar spectroscopy provides precise stellar and planetary parameters for most of these systems. We show that K2 has increased by 30% the number of small planets known to orbit moderately bright stars (1-4 R , Kp = 9-13 mag). Of particular interest are 76 planets smaller than 2 R , 15 orbiting stars brighter than Kp = 11.5 mag, 5 receiving Earth-like irradiation levels, and several multi-planet systems—including 4 planets orbiting the M dwarf K2-72 near mean-motion resonances. By quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is a planet we demonstrate that our candidate sample has an overall false positive rate of 15%-30%, with rates substantially lower for small candidates ( 2{R}\oplus ) and larger for candidates with radii 8{R}\oplus and/or with P 3 {{days}}. Extrapolation of the current planetary yield suggests that K2 will discover between 500 and 1000 planets in its planned four-year mission, assuming sufficient follow-up resources are available. Efficient observing and analysis, together with an organized and coherent follow-up strategy, are essential for maximizing the efficacy of planet-validation efforts for K2, TESS, and future large-scale surveys.

Dates and versions

insu-03691501 , version 1 (09-06-2022)

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Ian J. M. Crossfield, David R. Ciardi, Erik A. Petigura, Evan Sinukoff, Joshua E. Schlieder, et al.. 197 Candidates and 104 Validated Planets in K2’s First Five Fields. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 2016, 226, ⟨10.3847/0067-0049/226/1/7⟩. ⟨insu-03691501⟩
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