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Significant wave heights from Sentinel-1 SAR: Validation and applications

Abstract : Two empirical algorithms are developed for wave mode images measured from the synthetic aperture radar aboard Sentinel-1 A. The first method, called CWAVE_S1A, is an extension of previous efforts developed for ERS2 and the second method, called Fnn, uses the azimuth cutoff among other parameters to estimate significant wave heights (Hs) and average wave periods without using a modulation transfer function. Neural networks are trained using colocated data generated from WAVEWATCH III and independently verified with data from altimeters and in situ buoys. We use neural networks to relate the nonlinear relationships between the input SAR image parameters and output geophysical wave parameters. CWAVE_S1A performs well and has reduced precision compared to Fnn with Hs root mean square errors within 0.5 and 0.6 m, respectively. The developed neural networks extend the SAR's ability to retrieve useful wave information under a large range of environmental conditions including extratropical and tropical cyclones in which Hs estimation is traditionally challenging.Plain Language SummaryTwo empirical algorithms are developed to estimate integral wave parameters from high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ocean images measured from recently launched the Sentinel 1 satellite. These methods avoid the use of the complicated image to wave mapping typically used to estimate sea state parameters. In addition, we are able to estimate wave parameters that are not able to be measured using existing techniques for the Sentinel 1 satellite. We use a machine learning technique to create a model that relates the ocean image properties to geophysical wave parameters. The models are developed using data from a numerical model because of the sufficiently large sample of global ocean conditions. We then verify that our developed models perform well with respect to independently measured wave observations from other satellite sensors and buoys. We successfully created models that estimate integrated wave parameters, like the commonly used significant wave height, accurately in a large range of sea states (up to 13 m). This allows the data from the SAR technology to be applied under a large range of environmental conditions including extra-tropical and tropical cyclones. </div> </div> <div class="keywords"> <div class="keyword-content"> <strong>Keywords</strong> : <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/empirical%20wave%20heights%20from%20SAR/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">empirical wave heights from SAR</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/WAVEWATCH%20III/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">WAVEWATCH III</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/azimuth%20cutoff/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">azimuth cutoff</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/oceanic%20remote%20sensing/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">oceanic remote sensing</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/Sentinel-1/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">Sentinel-1</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/keyword_t/tropical%20cyclones/" target="_blank" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">tropical cyclones</a> </div> </div> <div class="metadatas"> <div><strong>Document type</strong> : <div class="label label-ART label-danger"> Journal articles </div> </div> <div><strong>Domain</strong> : <blockquote style="margin-left:65px;margin-top:-15px;"> <div> <div> <strong> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/level0_domain_s/sdu" target="_blank">Sciences of the Universe [physics]</a> </strong> </div> <div> <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/level0_domain_s/sdu" target="_blank">Sciences of the Universe [physics]</a> / <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/level1_domain_s/sdu.stu" target="_blank">Earth Sciences</a> / <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/level2_domain_s/sdu.stu.oc" target="_blank">Oceanography</a> </div> </div> </blockquote> </div> </div> <div class="metadatas-complete"> <span class="metadatas-complete-title"> Complete list of metadata </span> <span class="btn-view text-center"> <button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-sm" aria-expanded="false" onclick="viewDocMetadatas(3702053)"> <span class="glyphicon glyphicon-th-list" aria-hidden="true" ></span>  Display </button> </span> <div class="content"></div> </div> <!-- Relationships --> <!-- Cited References --> <!-- Gallery --> <hr/> <div> <small><br/>Contributor : <a rel="nofollow" href="/search/index/q/*/contributorId_i/106505" target="_blank">Nathalie POTHIER</a> <a href='javascript:void(0);' onclick="$('#form-login').submit();">Connect in order to contact the contributor</a> <br/>Submitted on : Wednesday, June 22, 2022 - 4:52:42 PM<br/>Last modification on : Thursday, June 23, 2022 - 3:16:07 AM <br/><br/> </small> </div> </div> <div class="col-md-4"> <!-- Fichiers --> <div class="widget widget-files"> <h3 class="widget-header"> File </h3> <div class="widget-content"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center"> <a href="" target="_blank"> <img src="//" style="border: 0" class="img-thumbnail" alt="Vignette du document"/> </a> </div> <div class="col-md-8"> <a href="" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" title="47415.pdf - 24.52 Mo">47415.pdf</a> <div>Publisher files allowed on an open archive </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!-- Licence --> <div class="widget widget-licence"> <h3 class="widget-header">Licence</h3> <div class="widget-content"> <div class="text-center">Copyright</div> </div> </div> <!-- Open Access --> <!-- Publisher Link --> <!-- Identifiants --> <div class="widget widget-identifiants"> <h3 class="widget-header">Identifiers</h3> <div class="widget-content"> <ul> <li>HAL Id : <strong>insu-03682753, version 1</strong></li> <li>BIBCODE : <strong><a href="" target="_blank" referrerpolicy="strict-origin-when-cross-origin">2017JGRC..122.1827S</a></strong></li><li>DOI : <strong><a href="" target="_blank" referrerpolicy="strict-origin-when-cross-origin">10.1002/2016JC012364</a></strong></li> </ul> </div> </div> <!-- Collections --> <div class="widget widget-collection"> <h3 class="widget-header">Collections</h3> <div class="widget-content"> <p><a href="/INSU" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" title="INSU - Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers">INSU</a> | <a href="/UNIV-BREST" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" title="Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest (UBO)">UNIV-BREST</a> | <a href="/CNRS" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" title="CNRS - Centre national de la recherche scientifique">CNRS</a> | <a href="/GEO-OCEAN" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" title="GEO-OCEAN">GEO-OCEAN</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- Relations --> <!-- Citation --> <div class="widget widget-citation"> <h3 class="widget-header">Citation</h3> <div class="widget-content ref-biblio">J. E. Stopa, A. Mouche. Significant wave heights from Sentinel-1 SAR: Validation and applications. <i>Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans</i>, 2017, 122, pp.1827-1848. <a target="_blank" href="">⟨10.1002/2016JC012364⟩</a>. <a target="_blank" href="">⟨insu-03682753⟩</a></div> </div> <!-- Export --> <div class="widget widget-export"> <h3 class="widget-header">Export</h3> <div class="widget-content" style="text-align:center"> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03682753v1/bibtex" role="button" target="_blank">BibTeX</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03682753v1/tei" role="button" target="_blank">TEI</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03682753v1/dc" role="button" target="_blank">DC</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03682753v1/dcterms" role="button" target="_blank">DCterms</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03682753v1/endnote" role="button">EndNote</a> <a class="widget-export-btn btn btn-default btn-sm" href="/insu-03682753v1/datacite" role="button">Datacite</a> </div> </div> <!-- Partager --> <div class="widget widget-share"> <h3 class="widget-header">Share</h3> <div class="widget-content" > <!-- AddToAny BEGIN --> <div class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_32 a2a_default_style"> <a class="a2a_button_facebook"></a> <a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a> <a class="a2a_button_email"></a> <a class="a2a_dd" href=""></a> </div> <script async src=""></script> <!-- AddToAny END --> </div> </div> <!-- Altmetrics --> <div class="widget widget-metrics"> <h3 class="widget-header">Metrics</h3> <div class="widget-content" style="text-align: center"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-6"> <div style="height:3em"><strong>Record views</strong></div> <h2 style="margin-top:10px;"><span class="label label-primary">0</span></h2> </div> <div class="col-md-6"> <div style="height:3em"><strong>Files downloads</strong></div> <h2 style="margin-top:10px;"><span class="label label-primary">0</span></h2> </div> </div> <hr style="margin-top:20px;margin-bottom:20px;"/> <div data-badge-details="right" data-badge-type="donut" data-hide-no-mentions="false" class="altmetric-embed" data-doi='10.1002/2016JC012364' ></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <!-- **************************** Footer ****************************** --> <footer role="contentinfo" class="footer footer-default"> <div class="row" style="margin:0"> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5>Contact</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Support</a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5>Resources</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" >Documentation</a> </li> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > FAQ </a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > API </a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > OAI-PMH </a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > AuréHAL </a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> Information</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="">Personal data and privacy </a> </li> <li> <a href="">Legal notice </a> </li> <li> <a href="">Accessibility</a> </li> <li> <a href="" >RGAA</a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> Legal issues</h5> <ul> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" >I publish, what are my rights?</a> </li> <li> <a href="" target="_blank" > Sherpa Romeo </a> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> Portails </h5> <ul> <li><a href="" >Portals list</a></li> <li><a href="//" target="_blank" >HAL SHS</a></li> <li><a href="//" target="_blank" >HAL Thèses</a></li> <li><a href="//" target="_blank" >mediHAL</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="col-sm-4 col-md-2"> <h5> CCSD </h5> <ul> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > CCSD </a> </li> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > </a> </li> <li> <a href="//" target="_blank" > </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </footer> <script type="text/javascript"> window.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", () => { $(document.body).tooltip({ selector: '[data-toggle="tooltip"]' , html: true, container: 'body'}); // Retrieve all buttons, convert it to an Array. 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