Closing the Water Cycle from Observations across Scales: Where Do We Stand? - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Year : 2021

Closing the Water Cycle from Observations across Scales: Where Do We Stand?

, , (1) , , , (2) , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (3) , , , , , , , ,
1
2
3
Wouter Dorigo
  • Function : Author
Stephan Dietrich
Luca Brocca
Sarah Carter
  • Function : Author
David Dunkerley
  • Function : Author
Hiroyuki Enomoto
  • Function : Author
René Forsberg
  • Function : Author
Andreas Güntner
  • Function : Author
Michaela I. Hegglin
  • Function : Author
Rainer Hollmann
  • Function : Author
Dale F. Hurst
  • Function : Author
Johnny A. Johannessen
  • Function : Author
Christian Kummerow
  • Function : Author
Tong Lee
  • Function : Author
Kari Luojus
  • Function : Author
Ulrich Looser
  • Function : Author
Diego G. Miralles
  • Function : Author
Victor Pellet
Thomas Recknagel
  • Function : Author
Claudia Ruz Vargas
  • Function : Author
Udo Schneider
  • Function : Author
Marc Schröder
  • Function : Author
Nigel Tapper
  • Function : Author
Valery Vuglinsky
  • Function : Author
Wolfgang Wagner
Lisan Yu
  • Function : Author
Luca Zappa
Michael Zemp
  • Function : Author
Valentin Aich
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Life on Earth vitally depends on the availability of water. Human pressure on freshwater resources is increasing, as is human exposure to weather-related extremes (droughts, storms, floods) caused by climate change. Understanding these changes is pivotal for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies. The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) defines a suite of essential climate variables (ECVs), many related to the water cycle, required to systematically monitor Earth's climate system. Since long-term observations of these ECVs are derived from different observation techniques, platforms, instruments, and retrieval algorithms, they often lack the accuracy, completeness, and resolution, to consistently characterize water cycle variability at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the capability of ground-based and remotely sensed observations of water cycle ECVs to consistently observe the hydrological cycle. We evaluate the relevant land, atmosphere, and ocean water storages and the fluxes between them, including anthropogenic water use. Particularly, we assess how well they close on multiple temporal and spatial scales. On this basis, we discuss gaps in observation systems and formulate guidelines for future water cycle observation strategies. We conclude that, while long-term water cycle monitoring has greatly advanced in the past, many observational gaps still need to be overcome to close the water budget and enable a comprehensive and consistent assessment across scales. Trends in water cycle components can only be observed with great uncertainty, mainly due to insufficient length and homogeneity. An advanced closure of the water cycle requires improved model-data synthesis capabilities, particularly at regional to local scales.
Fichier principal
Vignette du fichier
[15200477 - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society] Closing the Water Cycle from Observations across Scales Where Do We Stand .pdf (2.5 Mo) Télécharger le fichier
Origin : Publisher files allowed on an open archive

Dates and versions

insu-03671323 , version 1 (18-05-2022)

Licence

Attribution - CC BY 4.0

Identifiers

Cite

Wouter Dorigo, Stephan Dietrich, Filipe Aires, Luca Brocca, Sarah Carter, et al.. Closing the Water Cycle from Observations across Scales: Where Do We Stand?. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2021, 102, pp.E1897-E1935. ⟨10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0316.1⟩. ⟨insu-03671323⟩
16 View
7 Download

Altmetric

Share

Gmail Facebook Twitter LinkedIn More