HAL will be down for maintenance from Friday, June 10 at 4pm through Monday, June 13 at 9am. More information
Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

Implementation of a physically based water percolation routine in the Crocus/SURFEX (V7.3) snowpack model

Abstract : We present a new water percolation routine added to the one-dimensional snowpack model Crocus as an alternative to the empirical bucket routine. This routine solves the Richards equation, which describes flow of water through unsaturated porous snow governed by capillary suction, gravity and hydraulic conductivity of the snow layers. We tested the Richards routine on two data sets, one recorded from an automatic weather station over the winter of 2013-2014 at Filefjell, Norway, and the other an idealized synthetic data set. Model results using the Richards routine generally lead to higher water contents in the snow layers. Snow layers often reached a point at which the ice crystals' surface area is completely covered by a thin film of water (the transition between pendular and funicular regimes), at which feedback from the snow metamorphism and compaction routines are expected to be nonlinear. With the synthetic simulation 18 % of snow layers obtained a saturation of > 10 % and 0.57 % of layers reached saturation of > 15 %. The Richards routine had a maximum liquid water content of 173.6 kg m-3 whereas the bucket routine had a maximum of 42.1 kg m-3. We found that wet-snow processes, such as wet-snow metamorphism and wet-snow compaction rates, are not accurately represented at higher water contents. These routines feed back on the Richards routines, which rely heavily on grain size and snow density. The parameter sets for the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity of snow layers, which are used in the Richards routine, do not represent all the snow types that can be found in a natural snowpack. We show that the new routine has been implemented in the Crocus model, but due to feedback amplification and parameter uncertainties, meaningful applicability is limited. Updating or adapting other routines in Crocus, specifically the snow compaction routine and the grain metamorphism routine, is needed before Crocus can accurately simulate the snowpack using the Richards routine.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata

Contributor : Nathalie Pothier Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, May 16, 2022 - 8:39:16 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 17, 2022 - 3:47:15 AM


Publisher files allowed on an open archive


Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License





Christopher J. L. d'Amboise, Karsten Müller, Laurent Oxarango, Samuel Morin, Thomas V. Schuler. Implementation of a physically based water percolation routine in the Crocus/SURFEX (V7.3) snowpack model. Geoscientific Model Development, 2017, 10, pp.3547-3566. ⟨10.5194/gmd-10-3547-2017⟩. ⟨insu-03668338⟩



Record views


Files downloads