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The sudden stratospheric warming and chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic winter 2019: comparison with the winters of 1988 and 2002

Abstract : Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are associated with rapid rise in temperature in a short period of time in the polar vortex and reversal of the zonal winds in major warming conditions. Although SSWs are primarily driven by the planetary waves emanating from the troposphere, the exact reasons and factors responsible for the wave forcing are still to be uncovered. The severity and frequency of SSWs in the context of climate change are uncertain and warrant in-depth studies. Here, therefore, we characterize the most intense warming events in the southern polar region in the observed history for the past 41 years: the SSWs in 2019, 2002 and 1988. The 2019 minor warming began in response to the intense zonal wavenumber 1 forcing. The wave 1 amplitude was larger than that of 2002 and 1988, but wave 2 forcing was key for the major warming in 2002. The onset of warming took place in early (3–5) September and lasted until mid-(19–21) September in 2019. This minor warming was the longest as compared to that in the other years. The corresponding ozone loss was about 3.6 ppmv, the ozone hole area shrunk to 8 million km2 during the period of peak warming, and the ozone loss amount was higher in 2019 than that in the other 2 years. The 2019 spring had a PSC area of 5 million km2, and the vortex area was as small as 24 million km2 in the peak warming period. A variability of similar nature was also identified in the springs of 1988 and 2002. Henceforth, this study gives new insights into the unique dynamical situations in the warmest years of the southern polar stratospheric region in the observed history.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 6, 2022 - 6:03:01 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 7, 2022 - 3:38:25 AM

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R. Roy, Jayan Kuttippurath, Franck Lefèvre, S. Raj, P. Kumar. The sudden stratospheric warming and chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic winter 2019: comparison with the winters of 1988 and 2002. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Springer Verlag, 2022, (in press). ⟨10.1007/s00704-022-04031-6⟩. ⟨insu-03633171⟩

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