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Evolution and excitation conditions of outflows in high-mass star-forming regions

Abstract : Context. Theoretical models suggest that massive stars form via disk-mediated accretion in a similar fashion to low-mass stars. In this scenario, bipolar outflows ejected along the disk axis play a fundamental role, and their study can help characterize the different evolutionary stages involved in the formation of a high-mass star. A recent study toward massive molecular outflows has revealed a decrease in the SiO line intensity as the object evolves.
Aims: The present study aims to characterize the variation of the molecular outflow properties with time and to study the SiO excitation conditions in outflows associated with high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs).
Methods: We used the IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta (Spain) to map 14 high-mass star-forming regions in the SiO (2-1), SiO (5-4), and HCO+ (1-0) lines, which trace the molecular outflow emission. The FTS backend, covering a total frequency range of ~15 GHz, allowed us to simultaneously map several dense gas (e.g., N2H+, C2H, NH2D, H13CN) and hot-core (CH3CN) tracers. We used the Hi-GAL data to improve the previous spectral energy distributions and obtained a more accurate dust envelope mass and bolometric luminosity for each source. We calculated the luminosity-to-mass ratio, which is believed to be a good indicator of the evolutionary stage of the YSO.
Results: We detect SiO and HCO+ outflow emission in all fourteen sources and bipolar structures in six of them. The outflow parameters are similar to those found toward other massive YSOs with luminosities 103-104L. We find an increase in the HCO+ outflow energetics as the object evolves, and a decrease in the SiO abundance with time from 10-8 to 10-9. The SiO (5-4) to (2-1) line ratio is found to be low at the ambient gas velocity, and increases as we move to red-/blue-shifted velocities, indicating that the excitation conditions of the SiO change with the velocity of the gas. In particular, the high-velocity SiO gas component seems to arise from regions with higher densities and/or temperatures than the SiO emission at the ambient gas velocity.
Conclusions: The properties of the SiO and HCO+ outflow emission suggest a scenario in which SiO is largely enhanced in the first evolutionary stages, probably owing to strong shocks produced by the protostellar jet. As the object evolves, the power of the jet would decrease and so does the SiO abundance. During this process, however, the material surrounding the protostar would have been been swept up by the jet, and the outflow activity, traced by entrained molecular material (HCO+), would increase with time.

Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgDatacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A94

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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 22, 2022 - 3:41:07 PM
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Á. Sánchez-Monge, A. López-Sepulcre, R. Cesaroni, C. M. Walmsley, C. Codella, et al.. Evolution and excitation conditions of outflows in high-mass star-forming regions. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2013, 557, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201321589⟩. ⟨insu-03616482⟩

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