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Journal articles

Molecular line survey of the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I with Herschel/HIFI and the Submillimeter Array

Abstract :
Aims: We aim at deriving the molecular abundances and temperatures of the hot molecular cores in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I and consequently deriving their physical and astrochemical conditions.
Methods: In the framework of the Herschel guaranteed time key program CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions), NGC 6334I is investigated by using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. A spectral line survey is carried out in the frequency range 480-1907 GHz, and further auxiliary interferometric data from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in the 230 GHz band provide spatial information for disentangling the different physical components contributing to the HIFI spectrum. The spectral lines in the processed Herschel data are identified with the aid of former surveys and spectral line catalogs. The observed spectrum is then compared to a simulated synthetic spectrum, assuming local thermal equilibrium, and best fit parameters are derived using a model optimization package.
Results: A total of 46 molecules are identified, with 31 isotopologues, resulting in about 4300 emission and absorption lines. High-energy levels (Eu > 1000 K) of the dominant emitter methanol and vibrationally excited HCN (ν2 = 1) are detected. The number of unidentified lines remains low with 75, or <2% of the lines detected. The modeling suggests that several spectral features need two or more components to be fitted properly. Other components could be assigned to cold foreground clouds or to outflows, most visible in the SiO and H2O emission. A chemical variation between the two embedded hot cores is found, with more N-bearing molecules identified in SMA1 and O-bearing molecules in SMA2.
Conclusions: Spectral line surveys give powerful insights into the study of the interstellar medium. Different molecules trace different physical conditions like the inner hot core, the envelope, the outflows or the cold foreground clouds. The derived molecular abundances provide further constraints for astrochemical models.

Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at

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Submitted on : Friday, March 18, 2022 - 10:40:44 AM
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A. Zernickel, P. Schilke, A. Schmiedeke, D. C. Lis, C. L. Brogan, et al.. Molecular line survey of the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I with Herschel/HIFI and the Submillimeter Array. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2012, 546, ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201219803⟩. ⟨insu-03612405⟩



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