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Fluid inclusions in pseudotachylytes from the Nojima fault, Japan

Abstract : Pseudotachylytes (i.e., rocks formed by frictional melting) have been observed in the Nojima fault that was penetrated by the Hirabayashi borehole drilled 1 year after the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. These rocks display millimeter-scale banding defined by different pseudotachylyte layers. The nature of unmolten crystal fragments (K-feldspar, albite, calcite, and/or quartz) allows us to infer a minimum melting temperature of 1200°C. The glass has a 8±3% volatile content and a higher CaO content than that of the parent granodiorite, thus suggesting that pseudotachylyte formation occurred in an already altered, calcite-bearing and hydrated fault zone. Fluid inclusions have been observed in the glass and are filled with a dense low-salinity (4.3±1.2 wt % eq. NaCl) CO2-H2O fluid characterized by steep isochoric curves. The intersection between the isochores and the measured 24°C/km geothermal gradient indicates a minimum 15 km depth for the pseudotachylyte formation. Such a depth suggests that an important uplift has brought the studied pseudotachylytes to their present position and that these pseudotachylytes are probably pre-Miocene in age. The calculated thermal evolution of a typical millimeter-scale pseudotachylyte layer indicates that cooling does not last more than a few seconds. This indicates that related seismic processes, such as deceleration of fault movement and healing of the fault, were both very rapid. The geometry and thermal budget of the millimeter-thick pseudotachylytes suggest that seismic events of magnitude 6 to 7 are responsible for their formation.
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Contributor : Nathalie POTHIER Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Saturday, March 12, 2022 - 8:01:01 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, December 6, 2022 - 12:42:13 PM

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Anne-Marie Boullier, Tomoyuki Ohtani, Koichiro Fujimoto, Hisao Ito, Michel Dubois. Fluid inclusions in pseudotachylytes from the Nojima fault, Japan. Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth, 2001, 106, pp.21,965-21,977. ⟨10.1029/2000JB000043⟩. ⟨insu-03606659⟩

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