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Role of magma pressure, tectonic stress and crystallization progress in the emplacement of syntectonic granites. The A-type Estrela Granite Complex (Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil)

Abstract : The Archaean, syntectonic, A-type Estrela Granite Complex (Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil) consists of three plutons emplaced in a greenstone sequence under low-pressure conditions (180< P<310 MPa). It is composed mainly of annite-, ferropargasite (±hedenbergite)- and ilmenite-bearing monzogranites. The contact aureole is affected by a subvertical penetrative schistosity conformable with the limits of the plutons. Meso- to microstructures and mineral reactions in the granites indicate that deformation occurred in a continuum from above-solidus to low- T subsolidus conditions. Two distinct planar structures are observed: (i) a concentrical primary foliation (S 0) corresponding to rhythmic, isomodal, phase layering associated with a faint grain shape fabric; it is horizontal in the centre and vertical towards the edges of the plutons; and (ii) a steep to subvertical foliation (S 1) associated with the deformation of S 0 and accompanied with emplacement of synplutonic dykes and veins of leucocratic granites and pegmatites. Emplacement, differentiation and consolidation of the Estrela Granite Complex are considered to result from a continuous evolution under decreasing temperatures in a single-stage strained crust (transpression), with two main periods. (1) The first period is controlled by body forces, and it corresponds to inflation with magma ponding. As long as the rheology is melt dominated, magma pressure is the critical parameter and almost no strain is recorded. With decreasing T, magmas crystallize and differentiate leading to a concentrical magmatic phase layering. The growing magmatic bodies are mechanically decoupled from the country rocks and their evolution depends on internal magma chamber processes. (2) For higher amount of crystallization (residual melt fraction F<0.5), the role of magma pressure becomes insignificant. Establishment of a continuous crystal framework leads to the coupling of plutons with their surroundings, and deformation in response to tectonic stress. Most of the strain is recorded during this period which starts from the rigid percolation threshold, and extends to subsolidus low-grade conditions. This leads to deformation of the partially crystallized volume and redistribution of fluid-enriched differentiated melts. The amount of crystallization through the rheological thresholds appears as the critical parameter determining the transition from magma-controlled processes (inflation and differentiation of the magma chamber, with development of a phase layering) to tectonic-controlled processes (deformation of the phase layering and redistribution of residual melts). This accounts for the fact that syntectonic plutons commonly display intermingled, boudinaged layers with distinct modal compositions and in some cases well-preserved rhythmic layering.
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Submitted on : Saturday, March 12, 2022 - 7:21:58 AM
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C. E. M. Barros, P. Barbey, A. M. Boullier. Role of magma pressure, tectonic stress and crystallization progress in the emplacement of syntectonic granites. The A-type Estrela Granite Complex (Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil). Tectonophysics, 2001, 343, pp.93-109. ⟨10.1016/S0040-1951(01)00260-8⟩. ⟨insu-03606655⟩

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