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Fore-arc basin deformation in the Andaman-Nicobar segment of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone: Insight from high-resolution seismic reflection data

Abstract : The Andaman-Nicobar region is the northernmost segment of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone and marks the western boundary of the Andaman Sea, which is a complex active back-arc extensional basin. We present the interpretation of a new set of deep seismic reflection data acquired across the Andaman-Nicobar fore-arc basin, from 8°N to 11°N, in order to better understand its structure and evolution, focusing on (1) how obliquity of convergence affects deformation in the fore arc, (2) the nature and role of the Diligent Fault (DF), and (3) the Eastern Margin Fault (EMF). Despite the obliquity of convergence, back thrusting and compression seem to dominate the Andaman-Nicobar fore-arc basin deformation. The DF is primarily a back thrust and corresponds to the Mentawai and West Andaman Fault systems farther in the south, along Sumatra. The DF is expressed in the fore-arc basin as a series of mostly landward verging folds and faults, deforming the early to late Miocene sediments. The DF seems to root from the boundary between the accretionary complex and the continental backstop, where it meets the EMF. The EMF marks the western boundary of the fore-arc basin; it is associated with subsidence and is expressed as a deep piggyback basin, containing recent Pliocene to Pleistocene sediments. The eastern edge of the fore-arc basin is the Invisible Bank (IB), which is thought to be tilted and uplifted continental crust. Subsidence along the EMF and uplift and tilting of the IB seem to be related to different opening phases in the Andaman Sea.
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Raphaële E. Moeremans, Satish C. Singh. Fore-arc basin deformation in the Andaman-Nicobar segment of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone: Insight from high-resolution seismic reflection data. Tectonics, American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2015, 34, pp.1736-1750. ⟨10.1002/2015TC003901⟩. ⟨insu-03579673⟩

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