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Distribution and intensity of High-Temperature Low-Pressure metamorphism across the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt: constraints on the thermal record of the pre-orogenic hyperextension rifting

Maxime Ducoux 1 Laurent Jolivet 2 Emmanuel Masini 1, 3 Romain Augier 4, 5 Abdeltif Lahfid 6 Matthias Bernet 3 Sylvain Calassou 7 
5 Géodynamique - UMR7327
BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), ISTO - Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans - UMR7327 : UMR7327, INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers, UO - Université d'Orléans : UMR7327
Abstract : Whereas a straightforward link between crustal thinning and geothermal gradients during rifting is now well established, the thermal structure of sedimentary basins within hyperextended domains remains poorly documented. For this purpose, we investigate the spatial distribution of rift-related High-Temperature Low-Pressure (H T /L P ) metamorphism recorded in the preserved hyperextended rift basins inverted and integrated in the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt. Based on Vitrinite Reflectance (R o ) data measured in 169 boreholes and more than 200 peak-metamorphic temperatures ( T max ) data obtained by Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Material (RSCM) added to ∼425 previously published T max data, we propose a new map depicting the spatial distribution of the H T /L P metamorphism of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt. We also provide three regional-scale geological cross-sections associated with R o and T max data to constrain the distribution of paleo-isograds at depth. Based on these results, we show that the impact of rift-related metamorphism is restricted to the pre- and syn-rift sequence suggested by the depth profiles of R o values measured in different tectonostratigraphic intervals (pre-, syn- and post-rift and syn-convergence sediments). However, a small strip of early orogenic sediments (Santonian in age) appears also affected by high temperatures along the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust and above the Grand Rieu ridge, which we attribute to the percolation of hot hydrothermal fluids sourced from the dehydration of underthrust basement and/or sedimentary rocks at depth during the early orogenic stage. The map shows that the H T /L P metamorphism (reaching ∼500 °C) is recorded with similar intensity along the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt from the west in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin to the east in the Boucheville and Bas-Agly basins, for similar burial and rift-related structural settings. This thermal peak is also recorded underneath the northern border of the Mauléon Basin (calibrated by wells). It suggests that the high temperatures were recorded at the basement-sediment interface underneath the most distal part of the hyperextended domain. At basin-scale, we observe in the Basque-Cantabrian, Mauléon-Arzacq and Tarascon rift segments an asymmetry of the thermal structure revealed by different horizontal thermal gradients, supporting an asymmetry of the former hyperextended rift system. Using our results, we compare the Pyrénées to the Alps that also recorded hyperextension but no H T /L P metamorphic event and suggest that the high-temperature record within the basins depends on high sedimentation rate promoting a thermal blanketing effect and circulation of hydrothermal fluids.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 15, 2021 - 9:16:38 AM
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Maxime Ducoux, Laurent Jolivet, Emmanuel Masini, Romain Augier, Abdeltif Lahfid, et al.. Distribution and intensity of High-Temperature Low-Pressure metamorphism across the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt: constraints on the thermal record of the pre-orogenic hyperextension rifting. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, Société géologique de France, 2021, 192, pp.43. ⟨10.1051/bsgf/2021029⟩. ⟨insu-03428169⟩

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