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Petrogenetic links between rare metal-bearing pegmatites and TTG gneisses in the West African Craton: The Mangodara district of SW Burkina Faso

Abstract : We describe the geological context of rare metal-bearing pegmatites from the Mangodara district (South-West Burkina Faso, Paleoproterozoic West African Craton) and discuss their petrogenesis and links with the host rocks. The Mangodara district exposes a gneiss-granitoid complex structured in a regional-scale dome, mantled by granodioritic gneiss enclosing rafts of amphibolite, micaschist and paragneiss, and cored by tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses. These gneisses enclose granitoid plutons, and four populations of rare metal-bearing pegmatites: titanite-allanite-, apatite-zircon-, garnet-columbite (Li, Nb) and garnet-REE (Ti, Y, HREE)-bearing varieties. Rafts of migmatitic amphibolite, micaschist and paragneiss are chemically equivalent to nearby Birimian greenstone belts. An origin of the gneiss-granitoid complex by partial melting is suggested by diffuse contacts of rafts with the gneisses as well as the presence of garnet-bearing or hornblende-bearing leucosome in paragneiss and in amphibolites, respectively. Textural continuity between pegmatites and granitic veins concordant to the foliation of the gneisses point to syntectonic segregation of the pegmatite-forming magmas. The compositions of gneisses and plutonic rocks spread between a Na-rich pole and a K-rich pole. Granodioritic gneiss, hornblende-biotite granodiorite and potassic biotite granitoids define a K-rich series attributed to relatively low-pressure high-degree partial melting of dominantly paragneiss, which accounts for low to absent LILE and HFSE fractionation compared to the paragneiss. Tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneiss, a biotite trondhjemite and a peraluminous two-mica trondhjemite belong to a Na-rich series characterized by low K content and strong depletion in REE and HFSE, which might reflect plagioclase clustering after partial melting at a relatively high pressure of amphibolite, and fractionation of HFSE-REE-bearing minerals. Thermodynamic and mass balance modeling further corroborate these propositions implying that partial melting of paragneiss and amphibolite at about 5 to 10 kbars for a temperature of 780 to 850 °C followed by melt/solid segregation and fractional crystallization are susceptible to generate the Na- and K-rich series. U-Pb dating of zircon from a titanite-allanite-bearing pegmatite at 2094.3 ± 8.8 Ma and of apatite from tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneiss, apatite-zircon-bearing pegmatite and granodioritic gneiss at 2094 ± 21 Ma, 2055 ± 20 Ma, and 2041 ± 33 Ma respectively, confirm that partial melting, melt segregation and crystallization-cooling occurred during the Eburnean orogeny. Based on these data, we propose that (i) titanite-allanite- and apatite-zircon-bearing pegmatites result from syntectonic segregation of residual melt during crystallization of the tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneiss, (ii) garnet-columbite-bearing pegmatites originate from syntectonic melt segregation from the migmatitic paragneiss, and (iii) garnet-REE-bearing pegmatites derive from segregation of a residual melt within the granodioritic gneiss.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 6, 2021 - 12:30:17 PM
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Wilédio Marc-Emile Bonzi, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Marieke van Lichtervelde, Urbain Wenmenga, Anne-Sylvie André-Mayer, et al.. Petrogenetic links between rare metal-bearing pegmatites and TTG gneisses in the West African Craton: The Mangodara district of SW Burkina Faso. Precambrian Research, Elsevier, 2021, 364, pp.106359. ⟨10.1016/j.precamres.2021.106359⟩. ⟨insu-03324812⟩



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