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Neoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the southern Ouaddaï Massif (Chad)

Abstract : This paper presents new petrological, geochemical, isotopic (Nd) and geochronological data on magmatic rocks from the poorly known southern Ouaddaï massif, located at the southern edge of the socalled Saharan metacraton. This area is made of greenschist to amphibolite facies metasediments intruded by large pre-to syn-tectonic batholiths of leucogranites and an association of monzonite, granodiorite and biotite granite forming a late tectonic high-K calc-alkaline suite. U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 635 ± 3 Ma and 613 ± 8 Ma on a peraluminous biotite-leucogranite (containing numerous inherited Archean and Paleoproterozoic zircon cores) and a muscovite-leucogranite, respectively. Geochemical fingerprints are very similar to some evolved Himalayan leucogranites suggesting their parental magmas were formed after muscovite and biotite dehydration melting of metasedimentary rocks. A biotite-granite sample belonging to the late tectonic high-K to shoshonitic suite contains zircon rims that yield an age of 540 ± 5 Ma with concordant inherited cores crystallized around 1050 Ma. Given the high-Mg# (59) andesitic composition of the intermediate pyroxene-monzonite, the very similar trace-element signature between the different rock types and the unradiogenic isotopic signature for Nd, the late-kinematic high-K to shoshonitic rocks formed after melting of the enriched mantle and further differentiation in the crust. These data indicate that the southern Ouaddaï was part of the Pan-African belt. It is proposed that it represents a continental back-arc basin characterized by a high-geothermal gradient during Early Ediacaran leading to anatexis of middle to lower crustal levels. After tectonic inversion during the main Pan-African phase, late kinematic high-K to shoshonitic plutons emplaced during the final post-collisional stage.
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Félix Djerossem, Julien Berger, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Moussa Isseini, Jérôme Ganne, et al.. Neoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the southern Ouaddaï Massif (Chad). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, Société géologique de France, 2020, 191, pp.34. ⟨10.1051/bsgf/2020032⟩. ⟨insu-03189001⟩

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